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Title: CFD-DEM Onset of Motion Analysis for Application to Bed Scour Risk Assessment

Abstract

This CFD study with DEM was done as a part of the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) effort to improve scour design procedures. The Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method (CFD-DEM) model, available in CD-Adapco’s StarCCM+ software, was used to simulate multiphase systems, mainly those which combine fluids and solids. In this method the motion of discrete solids is accounted for by DEM, which applies Newton's laws of motion to every particle. The flow of the fluid is determined by the local averaged Navier–Stokes equations that can be solved using the traditional CFD approach. The interactions between the fluid phase and solids phase are modeled by use of Newton's third law. The inter-particle contact forces are included in the equations of motion. Soft-particle formulation is used, which allows particles to overlap. In this study DEM was used to model separate sediment grains and spherical particles laying on the bed with the aim to analyze their movement due to flow conditions. Critical shear stress causing the incipient movement of the sediment was established and compared to the available experimental data. An example of scour around a cylindrical pier is considered. Various depths of the scoured bed and flow conditions were taken into accountmore » to gain a better understanding of the erosion forces existing around bridge foundations. The decay of these forces with increasing scour depth was quantified with a ‘decay function’, which shows that particles become increasingly less likely to be set in motion by flow forces as a scour hole increases in depth. Computational and experimental examples of the scoured bed around a cylindrical pier are presented.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1372104
Report Number(s):
ANL/NED-17/1
136220
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; Discrete element method; computational fluid

Citation Formats

Sitek, M. A., and Lottes, S. A. CFD-DEM Onset of Motion Analysis for Application to Bed Scour Risk Assessment. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1372104.
Sitek, M. A., & Lottes, S. A. CFD-DEM Onset of Motion Analysis for Application to Bed Scour Risk Assessment. United States. doi:10.2172/1372104.
Sitek, M. A., and Lottes, S. A. Wed . "CFD-DEM Onset of Motion Analysis for Application to Bed Scour Risk Assessment". United States. doi:10.2172/1372104. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1372104.
@article{osti_1372104,
title = {CFD-DEM Onset of Motion Analysis for Application to Bed Scour Risk Assessment},
author = {Sitek, M. A. and Lottes, S. A.},
abstractNote = {This CFD study with DEM was done as a part of the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA’s) effort to improve scour design procedures. The Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method (CFD-DEM) model, available in CD-Adapco’s StarCCM+ software, was used to simulate multiphase systems, mainly those which combine fluids and solids. In this method the motion of discrete solids is accounted for by DEM, which applies Newton's laws of motion to every particle. The flow of the fluid is determined by the local averaged Navier–Stokes equations that can be solved using the traditional CFD approach. The interactions between the fluid phase and solids phase are modeled by use of Newton's third law. The inter-particle contact forces are included in the equations of motion. Soft-particle formulation is used, which allows particles to overlap. In this study DEM was used to model separate sediment grains and spherical particles laying on the bed with the aim to analyze their movement due to flow conditions. Critical shear stress causing the incipient movement of the sediment was established and compared to the available experimental data. An example of scour around a cylindrical pier is considered. Various depths of the scoured bed and flow conditions were taken into account to gain a better understanding of the erosion forces existing around bridge foundations. The decay of these forces with increasing scour depth was quantified with a ‘decay function’, which shows that particles become increasingly less likely to be set in motion by flow forces as a scour hole increases in depth. Computational and experimental examples of the scoured bed around a cylindrical pier are presented.},
doi = {10.2172/1372104},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The primary objectives of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis are (1) to verify that the design concept of using wedge shaped pier extensions to divert flow around piers as a scour counter measure has the intended effect on the flow, (2) to refine the design of the length and orientation of the pier extensions within the channel and (3) to optimize the guide walls that will protect a set of outer piers and the abutments on each side of the channel. The original proposed design is shown in Figure 1.3. The results of this effort are the recommended designsmore » that are judged to be the best designs based on results from the set of test cases run combined with engineering judgment. The refined designs from the CFD analysis are expected to be tested in a limited set of physical model experiments to verify that they work well.« less
  • This report is a supplement to a previous report [ref] covering optimization of wedge shaped pier extensions to streamline large bluff body piers as a local scour countermeasure for the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe (BNSF) Railroad Bridge over the Santa Ana River downstream of Prado Dam in Riverside County, CA. The optimized design was tested in a 1/30 scale physical model at U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) in Vicksburg, MS, and the optimized design was used as the base for the construction design. Constructability issues having to do with both materials and site conditions including accessmore » underneath the BNSF bridge yielded a construction design that required making the pier extensions wider and either moving the western curve of the west guide wall upstream or changing its geometry.« less
  • As modeling efforts expand to a broader spectrum of areas the amount of computer time required to exercise the corresponding computer codes has become quite costly. This costly process can be directly tied to the complexity of the modeling, which makes the relationships among the input variables not mathematically tractable. In this setting it is desired to perform sensitivity studies of the input-output relationships. A variety of situations require that decisions and judgments be made in the face of uncertainty, such as lack of knowledge about probability distributions associated with input variables, different hypothesized future conditions, or different strategies associatedmore » with a decision making process. In this paper a generalization of Latin hypercube sampling is given that allows these areas to be investigated without making additional computer runs.« less
  • Potentially hazardous test activities have historically been a part of Sandia National Labs mission to design, develop, and test new weapons systems. These test activities include high speed air drops for parachute development, sled tests for component and system level studies, multiple stage rocket experiments, and artillery firings of various projectiles. Due to the nature of Sandia's test programs, the risk associated with these activities can never be totally eliminated. However, a consistent set of policies should be available to provide guidance into the level of risk that is acceptable in these areas. This report presents a general set ofmore » guidelines for addressing safety issues related to rocket flight operations at Sandia National Laboratories. Even though the majority of this report deals primarily with rocket flight safety, these same principles could be applied to other hazardous test activities. The basic concepts of risk analysis have a wide range of applications into many of Sandia's current operations. 14 refs., 1 tab.« less
  • This report presents the study of the convergence behavior of the computational fluid dynamicsdiscrete element method (CFD-DEM) method, specifically National Energy Technology Laboratory’s (NETL) open source MFiX code (MFiX-DEM) with a diffusion based particle-tocontinuum filtering scheme. In particular, this study focused on determining if the numerical method had a solution in the high-resolution limit where the grid size is smaller than the particle size. To address this uncertainty, fixed particle beds of two primary configurations were studied: i) fictitious beds where the particles are seeded with a random particle generator, and ii) instantaneous snapshots from a transient simulation of anmore » experimentally relevant problem. Both problems considered a uniform inlet boundary and a pressure outflow. The CFD grid was refined from a few particle diameters down to 1/6 th of a particle diameter. The pressure drop between two vertical elevations, averaged across the bed cross-section was considered as the system response quantity of interest. A least-squares regression method was used to extrapolate the grid-dependent results to an approximate “grid-free” solution in the limit of infinite resolution. The results show that the diffusion based scheme does yield a converging solution. However, the convergence is more complicated than encountered in simpler, single-phase flow problems showing strong oscillations and, at times, oscillations superimposed on top of globally non-monotonic behavior. The challenging convergence behavior highlights the importance of using at least four grid resolutions in solution verification problems so that (over-determined) regression-based extrapolation methods may be applied to approximate the grid-free solution. The grid-free solution is very important in solution verification and VVUQ exercise in general as the difference between it and the reference solution largely determines the numerical uncertainty. By testing different randomized particle configurations of the same general problem (for the fictitious case) or different instances of freezing a transient simulation, the numerical uncertainties appeared to be on the same order of magnitude as ensemble or time averaging uncertainties. By testing different drag laws, almost all cases studied show that model form uncertainty in this one, very important closure relation was larger than the numerical uncertainty, at least with a reasonable CFD grid, roughly five particle diameters. In this study, the diffusion width (filtering length scale) was mostly set at a constant of six particle diameters. A few exploratory tests were performed to show that similar convergence behavior was observed for diffusion widths greater than approximately two particle diameters. However, this subject was not investigated in great detail because determining an appropriate filter size is really a validation question which must be determined by comparison to experimental or highly accurate numerical data. Future studies are being considered targeting solution verification of transient simulations as well as validation of the filter size with direct numerical simulation data.« less