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Title: Dynamic Modeling and Grid Interaction of a Tidal and River Generator

Abstract

This presentation provides a high-level overview of the deployment of a river generator installed in a small system. The turbine dynamics of a river generator, electrical generator, and power converter are modeled in detail. Various simulations can be exercised, and the impact of different control algorithms, failures of power switches, and corresponding impacts can be examined.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Technologies Office (EE-4W)
OSTI Identifier:
1371833
Report Number(s):
NREL/PR-5D00-68452
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at the 2017 HydroVision International, June 27-30 2017, Denver, Colorado
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
13 HYDRO ENERGY; hydropower plant; energy storage; pumped storage hydropower; adjustable speed; variable speed; ancillary services; frequency response

Citation Formats

Muljadi, Eduard, Gevorgian, Vahan, Donegan, James, Marnagh, Cian, and McEntee, Jarlath. Dynamic Modeling and Grid Interaction of a Tidal and River Generator. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Muljadi, Eduard, Gevorgian, Vahan, Donegan, James, Marnagh, Cian, & McEntee, Jarlath. Dynamic Modeling and Grid Interaction of a Tidal and River Generator. United States.
Muljadi, Eduard, Gevorgian, Vahan, Donegan, James, Marnagh, Cian, and McEntee, Jarlath. 2017. "Dynamic Modeling and Grid Interaction of a Tidal and River Generator". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1371833.
@article{osti_1371833,
title = {Dynamic Modeling and Grid Interaction of a Tidal and River Generator},
author = {Muljadi, Eduard and Gevorgian, Vahan and Donegan, James and Marnagh, Cian and McEntee, Jarlath},
abstractNote = {This presentation provides a high-level overview of the deployment of a river generator installed in a small system. The turbine dynamics of a river generator, electrical generator, and power converter are modeled in detail. Various simulations can be exercised, and the impact of different control algorithms, failures of power switches, and corresponding impacts can be examined.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 7
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. The input variations to these types of resources are slower but also steadier than wind or solar generation. The level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another, however, the control algorithm can be adjusted to local environment. This paper describes the hydrokinetic aspects of river and tidal generation based on a river and tidal generator. Althoughmore » the information given in this paper is not that of an exact generator deployed on site, the data used is representative of a typical river or tidal generator. In this paper, the hydrokinetic and associated electrical controller of the system were not included; however, the focus of this paper is on the hydrodynamic control.« less
  • As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern;more » thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).« less
  • As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern;more » thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).« less
  • As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. The input variations to these types of resources are slower but also steadier than wind or solar generation. The level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another, however, the control algorithm can be adjusted to local environment. This paper describes the hydrokinetic aspects of river and tidal generation based on a river and tidal generator. Althoughmore » the information given in this paper is not that of an exact generator deployed on site, the data used is representative of a typical river or tidal generator. In this paper, the hydrokinetic and associated electrical controller of the system were not included; however, the focus of this paper is on the hydrodynamic control.« less
  • Renewable energy generation has experienced significant cost reductions during the past decades, and it has become more accepted by the global population. In the beginning, wind generation dominated the development and deployment of renewable energy; however, during recent decades, photovoltaic (PV) generation has grown at a very significant pace due to the tremendous decrease in the cost of PV modules. The focus on renewable energy generation has now expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. The input water flow to these types of resources is more predictable than wind or solar generation.more » The data used in this paper is representative of a typical river or tidal generator. The analysis is based on a generator with a power rating of 40 kW. The tidal generator under consideration is driven by two sets of helical turbines connected to each side of the generator located in between the turbines. The generator is operated in variable speed, and it is controlled to maximize the energy harvested as well as the operation of the turbine generator. The electrical system consists of a three-phase permanent magnet generator connected to a three-phase passive rectifier. The output of the rectifier is connected to a DC-DC converter to match the rectifier output to the DC bus voltage of the DC-AC inverter. The three-phase inverter is connected to the grid, and it is controlled to provide a good interface with the grid. One important aspect of river and tidal generation is the braking mechanism. In a tidal generator, the braking mechanism is important to avoid a runaway condition in case the connection to the grid is lost when there is a fault in the lines. A runaway condition may lead to an overspeed condition and cause extreme stresses on the turbine blade structure and eventual disintegration of the mechanical structure. In this paper, the concept of the dynamic braking system is developed and investigated for normal and abnormal operations. The main objective is to optimize the performance under emergency braking while designing the system to be as simple as possible to avoid overdesigning the power electronics or exceeding the target budget.« less