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Title: DIII-D Electron Cyclotron Heating System Status and Upgrades

Abstract

The DIII-D Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system consists of six 110 GHz gyrotrons with corrugated coaxial 31.75 mm waveguide transmission lines and steerable launching mirrors. The system has been gradually updated, leading to increased experimental flexibility and a high system reliability of 91% in the past year. Operationally, the gyrotrons can generate up to a total of 4.8 MW of rf power for pulses up to 5 seconds. The maximum ECH energy injected into the DIII-D is 16.6 MJ. The HE1,1 mode content is over 85% for all the lines, and the transmission coefficient is better than -1.1 dB for all the transmission lines, close to the theoretical value. A new depressed collector gyrotron was recently installed and was injecting up to 640 kW of power into the plasma during 2014-2015 tokamak operations. Four dual waveguide launchers, which can steer the RF beams ±20 degrees poloidally and toroidally, are used for real-time neoclassical tearing mode control and suppression. The launchers now have increased poloidal scanning speed and beam positioning accuracy of ~±2 mm at the plasma center. Two more gyrotrons are expected to be installed and operational in 2015- 2016. The first is a repaired 110 GHz, 1 MW gyrotronmore » that had a gun failure after more than 11 years of operation at DIII-D. The second is a newly designed depressed collector tube in the 1.5 MW class, operating at 117.5 GHz, manufactured by Communications and Power Industries (CPI).« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1371755
Grant/Contract Number:
FC02-04ER54698; AC02-09CH11466
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0093-3813
Publisher:
IEEE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; electron cyclotron heating; electron cyclotron current drive; rf transmission line; gyrotron; antenna; DIII-D, tokamak

Citation Formats

Cengher, Mirela, Lohr, John, Gorelov, Yuri, Torrezan, Antonio, Ponce, Dan, Chen, Xi, and Moeller, Charles. DIII-D Electron Cyclotron Heating System Status and Upgrades. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1109/TPS.2016.2571219.
Cengher, Mirela, Lohr, John, Gorelov, Yuri, Torrezan, Antonio, Ponce, Dan, Chen, Xi, & Moeller, Charles. DIII-D Electron Cyclotron Heating System Status and Upgrades. United States. doi:10.1109/TPS.2016.2571219.
Cengher, Mirela, Lohr, John, Gorelov, Yuri, Torrezan, Antonio, Ponce, Dan, Chen, Xi, and Moeller, Charles. 2016. "DIII-D Electron Cyclotron Heating System Status and Upgrades". United States. doi:10.1109/TPS.2016.2571219. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1371755.
@article{osti_1371755,
title = {DIII-D Electron Cyclotron Heating System Status and Upgrades},
author = {Cengher, Mirela and Lohr, John and Gorelov, Yuri and Torrezan, Antonio and Ponce, Dan and Chen, Xi and Moeller, Charles},
abstractNote = {The DIII-D Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system consists of six 110 GHz gyrotrons with corrugated coaxial 31.75 mm waveguide transmission lines and steerable launching mirrors. The system has been gradually updated, leading to increased experimental flexibility and a high system reliability of 91% in the past year. Operationally, the gyrotrons can generate up to a total of 4.8 MW of rf power for pulses up to 5 seconds. The maximum ECH energy injected into the DIII-D is 16.6 MJ. The HE1,1 mode content is over 85% for all the lines, and the transmission coefficient is better than -1.1 dB for all the transmission lines, close to the theoretical value. A new depressed collector gyrotron was recently installed and was injecting up to 640 kW of power into the plasma during 2014-2015 tokamak operations. Four dual waveguide launchers, which can steer the RF beams ±20 degrees poloidally and toroidally, are used for real-time neoclassical tearing mode control and suppression. The launchers now have increased poloidal scanning speed and beam positioning accuracy of ~±2 mm at the plasma center. Two more gyrotrons are expected to be installed and operational in 2015- 2016. The first is a repaired 110 GHz, 1 MW gyrotron that had a gun failure after more than 11 years of operation at DIII-D. The second is a newly designed depressed collector tube in the 1.5 MW class, operating at 117.5 GHz, manufactured by Communications and Power Industries (CPI).},
doi = {10.1109/TPS.2016.2571219},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science},
number = 12,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

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  • The Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system on the DIII-D tokamak consists of six 110 GHz gyrotrons with corrugated coaxial 31.75 mm waveguide transmission lines and steerable launching mirrors. The system has been gradually updated, leading to increased experimental flexibility and a high system reliability of 91% in the past year. Operationally, the gyrotrons can generate up to a total of 4.8 MW of rf power for pulses up to 5 seconds in length. The maximum ECH energy injected into the DIII-D has been 16.6 MJ. The HE11 mode content is over 85% for all the lines, and the transmission coefficientmore » is better than -1.1 dB for all the transmission lines, close to the theoretical value. A new depressed collector gyrotron was recently installed and was injecting up to 640 kW of power into the plasma during 2014-2015 tokamak operations. Three dual waveguide launchers, which can steer the RF beams ±20 degrees poloidally and toroidally, were used for real-time neoclassical tearing mode control and suppression. The launchers now have increased poloidal scanning speed and beam positioning accuracy of ~±2 mm at the plasma center. A new method of in-situ calibration of the mirror angle was used in conjunction with the upgrading of the encoders and motors for the launchers. Two more gyrotrons are expected to be installed and operational in 2015-2016. The first is a repaired 110 GHz, 1 MW gyrotron that had a gun failure after more than 11 years of operation at DIII-D. The second is a newly designed depressed collector tube in the 1.5 MW class, operating at 117.5 GHz, manufactured by Communications and Power Industries (CPI). It operates in the TE20,9 mode and has achieved 1.8 MW for short pulses during factory testing. Furthermore, this gyrotron is undergoing rework to address a high voltage standoff problem.« less
  • One of the primary components of the DIII-D radio frequency (rf) program over the past seven years has been the 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) system. The system now consists of eight units capable of operating and controlling eight Varian VGE-8006 60 GHz, 200 kW gyrotrons along with their associated waveguide components. This paper will discuss the operational upgrades and the overall system performance. Many modifications were instituted to enhance the system operation and performance. Modifications discussed in this paper include an improved gyrotron tube-fault response network, a computer controlled pulse-timing and sequencing system, and an improved high-voltagemore » power supply control interface. The discussion on overall system performance will include operating techniques used to improve system operations and reliability. The techniques discussed apply to system start-up procedures, operating the system in a conditioning mode, and operating the system during DIII-D plasma operations.« less
  • In the DIII-D electron heating and current drive installation, up to six gyrotron microwave generators in the 1-MW class at pulse lengths up to 5 s have been operated simultaneously. The frequency for all the gyrotrons is 110 GHz, corresponding to the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency at 2 T. The peak generated power has been >4 MW with peak injected power slightly greater than 3 MW. The radio frequency (rf) generators are located remotely and are connected to the tokamak by up to 100 m of evacuated circular corrugated waveguide carrying the HE{sub 1,1} mode with overall transmissionmore » efficiency, including coupling to the waveguide, of up to 75%. Ancillary equipment for polarization control, beam switching, power monitoring, control of launch direction, and system protection has been developed.The system has been used to support a wide variety of physics experiments, including control of magnetohydrodynamic modes, current density profile modifications, basic plasma heating and current drive, transport studies, and rf-assisted start-up. The gyrotron complex is being upgraded by the acquisition of additional tubes with 5- to 10-s pulse length capability.« less
  • A 170 GHz Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/CD) system on KSTAR is designed to launch total 2.4 MW of power for up to 300 sec into the plasma. At present the first 1 MW ECH/CD system is under installation and commissioning for 2011 KSTAR campaign. The 170 GHz, 1 MW, 300 sec gyrotron and the matching optics unit (MOU) will be provided from JAEA under collaboration between NFRI and JAEA. The transmission line consists of MOU and 70 m long 63.5 mm ID corrugated waveguides with the eight miter bends. The 1 MW, 10 sec launcher is developedmore » based on the existing two-mirror front-end launcher in collaboration with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Pohang University of Science and Technology, and is installed on the low field side in the KSTAR equatorial plane. The mirror pivot is located at 30 cm below from the equatorial plane. 3.6 MVA power supply system is manufactured and now is under commissioning to meet the triode gun operation of JAEA gyrotron. The power supply consists of 66 kV/55 A cathode power supply, mode-anode system, and 50 kV/160 mA body power supply. In this paper, the current status of KSTAR 170 GHz, 1 MW ECH/CD system will be presented as well as the experimental plan utilizing 170 GHz new ECH/CD system.« less