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Title: Pulse Duration of Seeded Free-Electron Lasers

Abstract

The pulse duration, and, more generally, the temporal intensity profile of free-electron laser (FEL) pulses, is of utmost importance for exploring the new perspectives offered by FELs; it is a nontrivial experimental parameter that needs to be characterized. We measured the pulse shape of an extreme ultraviolet externally seeded FEL operating in high-gain harmonic generation mode. Two different methods based on the cross-correlation of the FEL pulses with an external optical laser were used. The two methods, one capable of single-shot performance, may both be implemented as online diagnostics in FEL facilities. The measurements were carried out at the seeded FEL facility FERMI. The FEL temporal pulse characteristics were measured and studied in a range of FEL wavelengths and machine settings, and they were compared to the predictions of a theoretical model. Finally, the measurements allowed a direct observation of the pulse lengthening and splitting at saturation, in agreement with the proposed theory.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [1];  [7];  [1];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [1] more »;  [1];  [1];  [11];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [12];  [13];  [1];  [1];  [12];  [1];  [1];  [6];  [8];  [14];  [15];  [8];  [10];  [8];  [8];  [16];  [17];  [18];  [19] « less
  1. Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)
  2. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Carl von Ossietzky Univ., Oldenburg (Germany); Hochschule Emden/Leer-Univ. of Applied Sciences, Emden (Germany)
  3. CNR-ISM, Trieste (Italy);Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)
  4. Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Univ. of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)
  5. Univ. of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)
  6. Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)
  7. Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  8. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
  9. Univ. of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); CNR-ISM, Trieste (Italy)
  10. Carl von Ossietzky Univ., Oldenburg (Germany); Hochschule Emden/Leer-Univ. of Applied Sciences, Emden (Germany)
  11. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic)
  12. Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Jena (Germany); Class 5 Photonics GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)
  13. Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Swinburne Univ. of Technology, Melbourne (Australia); CNR-IOM, Trieste (Italy)
  14. Univ. la Sapienza, Roma (Italy); CNR-IOM, Trieste (Italy)
  15. Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Univ. of Trieste, Trieste (Italy)
  16. CNR-IOM, Trieste (Italy); Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)
  17. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)
  18. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  19. ENEA, Frascati Roma (Italy); Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1369340
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review. X
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2160-3308
Publisher:
American Physical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Finetti, Paola, Hoppner, Hauke, Allaria, Enrico, Callegari, Carlo, Capotondi, Flavio, Cinquegrana, Paolo, Coreno, Marcello, Cucini, Riccardo, Danailov, Miltcho B., Demidovich, Alexander, De Ninno, Giovanni, Di Fraia, Michele, Feifel, Raimund, Ferrari, Eugenio, Frohlich, Lars, Gauthier, David, Golz, Torsten, Grazioli, Cesare, Kai, Yun, Kurdi, Gabor, Mahne, Nicola, Manfredda, Michele, Medvedev, Nikita, Nikolov, Ivaylo P., Pedersoli, Emanuele, Penco, Giuseppe, Plekan, Oksana, Prandolini, Mark J., Prince, Kevin C., Raimondi, Lorenzo, Rebernik, Primoz, Riedel, Robert, Roussel, Eleonore, Sigalotti, Paolo, Squibb, Richard, Stojanovic, Nikola, Stranges, Stefano, Svetina, Cristian, Tanikawa, Takanori, Teubner, Ulrich, Tkachenko, Victor, Toleikis, Sven, Zangrando, Marco, Ziaja, Beata, Tavella, Franz, and Giannessi, Luca. Pulse Duration of Seeded Free-Electron Lasers. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.7.021043.
Finetti, Paola, Hoppner, Hauke, Allaria, Enrico, Callegari, Carlo, Capotondi, Flavio, Cinquegrana, Paolo, Coreno, Marcello, Cucini, Riccardo, Danailov, Miltcho B., Demidovich, Alexander, De Ninno, Giovanni, Di Fraia, Michele, Feifel, Raimund, Ferrari, Eugenio, Frohlich, Lars, Gauthier, David, Golz, Torsten, Grazioli, Cesare, Kai, Yun, Kurdi, Gabor, Mahne, Nicola, Manfredda, Michele, Medvedev, Nikita, Nikolov, Ivaylo P., Pedersoli, Emanuele, Penco, Giuseppe, Plekan, Oksana, Prandolini, Mark J., Prince, Kevin C., Raimondi, Lorenzo, Rebernik, Primoz, Riedel, Robert, Roussel, Eleonore, Sigalotti, Paolo, Squibb, Richard, Stojanovic, Nikola, Stranges, Stefano, Svetina, Cristian, Tanikawa, Takanori, Teubner, Ulrich, Tkachenko, Victor, Toleikis, Sven, Zangrando, Marco, Ziaja, Beata, Tavella, Franz, & Giannessi, Luca. Pulse Duration of Seeded Free-Electron Lasers. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.7.021043.
Finetti, Paola, Hoppner, Hauke, Allaria, Enrico, Callegari, Carlo, Capotondi, Flavio, Cinquegrana, Paolo, Coreno, Marcello, Cucini, Riccardo, Danailov, Miltcho B., Demidovich, Alexander, De Ninno, Giovanni, Di Fraia, Michele, Feifel, Raimund, Ferrari, Eugenio, Frohlich, Lars, Gauthier, David, Golz, Torsten, Grazioli, Cesare, Kai, Yun, Kurdi, Gabor, Mahne, Nicola, Manfredda, Michele, Medvedev, Nikita, Nikolov, Ivaylo P., Pedersoli, Emanuele, Penco, Giuseppe, Plekan, Oksana, Prandolini, Mark J., Prince, Kevin C., Raimondi, Lorenzo, Rebernik, Primoz, Riedel, Robert, Roussel, Eleonore, Sigalotti, Paolo, Squibb, Richard, Stojanovic, Nikola, Stranges, Stefano, Svetina, Cristian, Tanikawa, Takanori, Teubner, Ulrich, Tkachenko, Victor, Toleikis, Sven, Zangrando, Marco, Ziaja, Beata, Tavella, Franz, and Giannessi, Luca. Fri . "Pulse Duration of Seeded Free-Electron Lasers". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevX.7.021043. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1369340.
@article{osti_1369340,
title = {Pulse Duration of Seeded Free-Electron Lasers},
author = {Finetti, Paola and Hoppner, Hauke and Allaria, Enrico and Callegari, Carlo and Capotondi, Flavio and Cinquegrana, Paolo and Coreno, Marcello and Cucini, Riccardo and Danailov, Miltcho B. and Demidovich, Alexander and De Ninno, Giovanni and Di Fraia, Michele and Feifel, Raimund and Ferrari, Eugenio and Frohlich, Lars and Gauthier, David and Golz, Torsten and Grazioli, Cesare and Kai, Yun and Kurdi, Gabor and Mahne, Nicola and Manfredda, Michele and Medvedev, Nikita and Nikolov, Ivaylo P. and Pedersoli, Emanuele and Penco, Giuseppe and Plekan, Oksana and Prandolini, Mark J. and Prince, Kevin C. and Raimondi, Lorenzo and Rebernik, Primoz and Riedel, Robert and Roussel, Eleonore and Sigalotti, Paolo and Squibb, Richard and Stojanovic, Nikola and Stranges, Stefano and Svetina, Cristian and Tanikawa, Takanori and Teubner, Ulrich and Tkachenko, Victor and Toleikis, Sven and Zangrando, Marco and Ziaja, Beata and Tavella, Franz and Giannessi, Luca},
abstractNote = {The pulse duration, and, more generally, the temporal intensity profile of free-electron laser (FEL) pulses, is of utmost importance for exploring the new perspectives offered by FELs; it is a nontrivial experimental parameter that needs to be characterized. We measured the pulse shape of an extreme ultraviolet externally seeded FEL operating in high-gain harmonic generation mode. Two different methods based on the cross-correlation of the FEL pulses with an external optical laser were used. The two methods, one capable of single-shot performance, may both be implemented as online diagnostics in FEL facilities. The measurements were carried out at the seeded FEL facility FERMI. The FEL temporal pulse characteristics were measured and studied in a range of FEL wavelengths and machine settings, and they were compared to the predictions of a theoretical model. Finally, the measurements allowed a direct observation of the pulse lengthening and splitting at saturation, in agreement with the proposed theory.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevX.7.021043},
journal = {Physical Review. X},
number = 2,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jun 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Jun 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • We investigate a fundamental limitation occurring in vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet seeded free electron lasers (FELs). For a given electron beam and undulator configuration, an increase of the FEL output energy at saturation can be obtained via an increase of the seed pulse duration. We put in evidence a complex spatiotemporal deformation of the amplified pulse, leading ultimately to a pulse splitting effect. Numerical studies of the Colson-Bonifacio FEL equations reveal that slippage length and seed laser pulse wings are core ingredients of the dynamics.
  • We report experimental studies of generating and controlling femtosecond x-ray pulses in free-electron lasers (FELs) using an emittance spoiling foil. By selectivity spoiling the transverse emittance of the electron beam, the output pulse duration or double-pulse separation is adjusted with a variable size single or double slotted foil. Measurements were performed with an X-band transverse deflector located downstream of the FEL undulator, from which both the FEL lasing and emittance spoiling effects are observed directly.
  • The advances in laser technology have made available very short and intense laser pulses which can be used to seed a high-gain single-pass free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier. With these seed pulses, a regime of the FEL interaction where the radiation evolution is simultaneously dominated by nonlinear effects (saturation) and time-dependent effects (slippage) can be explored. This regime is characterized by the propagation of a solitary wavelike pulse where the power of the optical wave grows quadratically with time, its pulse length decreases and the spectral bandwidth increases. We analyze the interplay between the field and particle dynamics of this propagationmore » regime which was studied before and termed super-radiance. Furthermore we analyze the properties of the strong higher-order harmonic emission from this wave and its behavior when propagating in a cascade FEL. The super-radiant pulse is indeed capable of passing through the stages of a cascade FEL and to regenerate itself at the wavelength of the higher-order harmonic. The optical pulse obtained is shorter than a cooperation length and is strongly chirped in frequency, thus allowing further longitudinal compression down to the attosecond time scale.« less
  • Coherent x-ray production by a seeded free electron laser (FEL) is important for next generation synchrotron light sources. We examine the feasibility and features of FEL emission seeded by a high-order harmonic of an infrared laser (HHG). In addition to the intrinsic FEL chirp, the longitudinal profile and spectral bandwidth of the HHG seed are modified significantly by the FEL interaction well before saturation. This smears out the original attosecond pulselet structure. We introduce criteria for this smearing effect on the pulselet and the stretching effect on the entire pulse. We discuss the noise issue in such a seeded FEL.
  • We report the first experimental demonstration of the echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) technique which holds great promise for generation of high power, fully coherent short-wavelength radiation. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the 3rd and 4th harmonic of the second seed laser is generated from the so-called beam echo effect. The experiment confirms the physics behind this technique and paves the way for applying the EEHG technique for seeded x-ray free electron lasers.