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Title: Thermally activated diffusion of copper into amorphous carbon

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DS 9
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Data Type:
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Appy, David, Wallingford, mark, Jing, Dapeng, Ott, Ryan, Tringides, Michael, Richter, Gunther, and Thiel, Patricia. Thermally activated diffusion of copper into amorphous carbon. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.17039/ameslab.dmse.2017.DS9/1369302.
Appy, David, Wallingford, mark, Jing, Dapeng, Ott, Ryan, Tringides, Michael, Richter, Gunther, & Thiel, Patricia. Thermally activated diffusion of copper into amorphous carbon. United States. doi:10.17039/ameslab.dmse.2017.DS9/1369302.
Appy, David, Wallingford, mark, Jing, Dapeng, Ott, Ryan, Tringides, Michael, Richter, Gunther, and Thiel, Patricia. 2017. "Thermally activated diffusion of copper into amorphous carbon". United States. doi:10.17039/ameslab.dmse.2017.DS9/1369302.
title = {Thermally activated diffusion of copper into amorphous carbon},
author = {Appy, David and Wallingford, mark and Jing, Dapeng and Ott, Ryan and Tringides, Michael and Richter, Gunther and Thiel, Patricia},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.17039/ameslab.dmse.2017.DS9/1369302},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 7
  • Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the authors characterize the thermally activated changes that occur when Cu is deposited on amorphous carbon supported on Si at 300 K, then heated to 800 K. The authors compare data for Cu on the basal plane of graphite with pinning defects, where scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that coarsening is the main process in this temperature range. Coarsening begins at 500–600 K and causes moderate attenuation of the Cu photoelectron signal. For Cu on amorphous carbon, heating to 800 K causes Cu to diffuse into the bulk of the film, based on the strong attenuation ofmore » the Cu signal. Diffusion into the bulk of the amorphous carbon film is confirmed by changes in the shape of the Cu 2 p inelastic tail, and by comparison of attenuation between Cu 2 p and Cu 3 p lines. The magnitude of the photoelectron signal attenuation is compatible with Cu distributed homogeneously throughout the amorphous carbon film, and is not compatible with Cu at or below the C–Si interface under the conditions of our experiments. As a result, desorption is not significant at temperatures up to 800 K.« less
  • In this report we show that the size, shape, and composition of pre-synthesized metal nanoparticles can be engineered through exploiting concurrent interparticle coalescence and interfacial copper-thiolate cleavage under a thermally-activated evolution process. This concept is demonstrated by thermally-activated processing of ultrafine (~0.5 nm) copper nanoparticles encapsulated with thiolate monolayer (Cun(SR)m) toward copper sulfide nanodiscs with controllable sizes and shapes. It involved a thermally-activated coalescence of Cun(SR)m nanoclusters accompanied by interfacial Cu-S cleavage towards the formation of Cu2S nanocrystals with well-defined nanodisc shapes with an average diameter and thickness ranging from 10.7 ±1.4 nm and 5.5 ±0.5 nm (aspect ratio ~2)more » to 31.2 ±4.3 nm and 3.9 ±0.4 nm (aspect ratio ~7) depending on the thermal processing parameters. These nanodiscs are stable and display remarkable ordering upon self-assembly. The abilities to create the ultrafine copper nanoclusters and to enable them to undergo a thermally-activated coalescence and a concurrent Cu-S bond cleavage toward the formation of Cu2S nanodiscs is entirely new. The viability of fine tuning the size and shape of the Cu2S nanocrystals by controlling the relative binding strength of thiolates, the C-S cleavage reactivity, and the interparticle coalescence activity, and their potential applications in electronic, sensing and photochemical devices are also discussed.« less
  • We investigate the ionization and displacement effects of an electron-beam (e-beam) on amorphous Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} synthesized by the co-precipitation and calcination methods. The as-received amorphous specimens were irradiated under electron beams at different energies (80 keV, 120 keV, and 2 MeV) and then characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A metastable fluorite phase was observed in nanocrystalline Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and is proposed to arise from the relatively lower surface and interface energy compared with the pyrochlore phase. Fast crystallization could be induced by 120 keV e-beam irradiation (beam current = 0.47 mA/cm{sup 2}). The crystallization occurred on the nanoscale upon ionizationmore » irradiation at 400 °C after a dose of less than 10{sup 17} electrons/cm{sup 2}. Under e-beam irradiation, the activation energy for the grain growth process was approximately 10 kJ/mol, but the activation energy was 135 kJ/mol by calcination in a furnace. The thermally activated ionization process was considered the fast crystallization mechanism.« less
  • A recovery model is presented which includes specific assignments of point-defect migration to the various recovery stages in copper. New experimental results showing the effects of prior cold work on the production and subsequent recovery of damage produced in copper by 10 K and 90 deg K electron irradiations are also presented. Irradiation recovery Stages I/sub D/ and I/sub E/ are suppressed by previous cold work. This suppression is reflected in an increased damage rate at 90 deg K, and the additional damage which remains in Stages I/sub D/ and I/sub E/, or which is produced at 90 deg K,more » recovery in Stage III. The recovery in Stage III is altered from the bimolecular process characteristic of annealed copper. However, under certain conditions, a superrecovery occurs in Stage III, so that the measured resistivity drops below the preirradiation value. These observations are interpreted according to this recovery model. (auth)« less