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Title: “Standoff Biofinder” for Fast, Noncontact, Nondestructive, Large-Area Detection of Biological Materials for Planetary Exploration

Abstract

In this paper, we developed a prototype instrument called the Standoff Biofinder, which can quickly locate biological material in a 500 cm 2 area from a 2 m standoff distance with a detection time of 0.1 s. All biogenic materials give strong fluorescence signals when excited with UV and visible lasers. In addition, the luminescence decay time of biogenic compounds is much shorter (<100 ns) than the micro- to millisecond decay time of transition metal ions and rare-earth ions in minerals and rocks. The Standoff Biofinder takes advantage of the short lifetime of biofluorescent materials to obtain real-time fluorescence images that show the locations of biological materials among luminescent minerals in a geological context. The Standoff Biofinder instrument will be useful for locating biological material during future NASA rover, lander, and crewed missions. Additionally, the instrument can be used for nondestructive detection of biological materials in unique samples, such as those obtained by sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids. Finally, the Standoff Biofinder also has the capacity to detect microbes and bacteria on space instruments for planetary protection purposes.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [3];  [3]
  1. Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Hawaii Inst. of Geophysics and Planetology
  2. NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  4. NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
Contributing Org.:
NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States); NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1369192
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-28668
Journal ID: ISSN 1531-1074
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-06NA25396; NNX13AM98A
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astrobiology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 1531-1074
Publisher:
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Standoff Biofinder; Luminescence; Time-resolved fluorescence; Biofluorescence; Planetary exploration; Planetary protection; Noncontact nondestructive biodetection

Citation Formats

Misra, Anupam K., Acosta-Maeda, Tayro E., Sharma, Shiv K., McKay, Christopher P., Gasda, Patrick J., Taylor, G. Jeffrey, Lucey, Paul G., Flynn, Luke, Abedin, M. Nurul, Clegg, Samuel M., and Wiens, Roger. “Standoff Biofinder” for Fast, Noncontact, Nondestructive, Large-Area Detection of Biological Materials for Planetary Exploration. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1089/ast.2015.1400.
Misra, Anupam K., Acosta-Maeda, Tayro E., Sharma, Shiv K., McKay, Christopher P., Gasda, Patrick J., Taylor, G. Jeffrey, Lucey, Paul G., Flynn, Luke, Abedin, M. Nurul, Clegg, Samuel M., & Wiens, Roger. “Standoff Biofinder” for Fast, Noncontact, Nondestructive, Large-Area Detection of Biological Materials for Planetary Exploration. United States. doi:10.1089/ast.2015.1400.
Misra, Anupam K., Acosta-Maeda, Tayro E., Sharma, Shiv K., McKay, Christopher P., Gasda, Patrick J., Taylor, G. Jeffrey, Lucey, Paul G., Flynn, Luke, Abedin, M. Nurul, Clegg, Samuel M., and Wiens, Roger. Thu . "“Standoff Biofinder” for Fast, Noncontact, Nondestructive, Large-Area Detection of Biological Materials for Planetary Exploration". United States. doi:10.1089/ast.2015.1400. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1369192.
@article{osti_1369192,
title = {“Standoff Biofinder” for Fast, Noncontact, Nondestructive, Large-Area Detection of Biological Materials for Planetary Exploration},
author = {Misra, Anupam K. and Acosta-Maeda, Tayro E. and Sharma, Shiv K. and McKay, Christopher P. and Gasda, Patrick J. and Taylor, G. Jeffrey and Lucey, Paul G. and Flynn, Luke and Abedin, M. Nurul and Clegg, Samuel M. and Wiens, Roger},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we developed a prototype instrument called the Standoff Biofinder, which can quickly locate biological material in a 500 cm2 area from a 2 m standoff distance with a detection time of 0.1 s. All biogenic materials give strong fluorescence signals when excited with UV and visible lasers. In addition, the luminescence decay time of biogenic compounds is much shorter (<100 ns) than the micro- to millisecond decay time of transition metal ions and rare-earth ions in minerals and rocks. The Standoff Biofinder takes advantage of the short lifetime of biofluorescent materials to obtain real-time fluorescence images that show the locations of biological materials among luminescent minerals in a geological context. The Standoff Biofinder instrument will be useful for locating biological material during future NASA rover, lander, and crewed missions. Additionally, the instrument can be used for nondestructive detection of biological materials in unique samples, such as those obtained by sample return missions from the outer planets and asteroids. Finally, the Standoff Biofinder also has the capacity to detect microbes and bacteria on space instruments for planetary protection purposes.},
doi = {10.1089/ast.2015.1400},
journal = {Astrobiology},
number = 9,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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