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Title: Layer transfer of bulk gallium nitride by controlled spalling

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  1. IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598, USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 2; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-02-14 14:28:01; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
American Institute of Physics
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Bedell, S. W., Lauro, P., Ott, J. A., Fogel, K., and Sadana, D. K. Layer transfer of bulk gallium nitride by controlled spalling. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4986646.
Bedell, S. W., Lauro, P., Ott, J. A., Fogel, K., & Sadana, D. K. Layer transfer of bulk gallium nitride by controlled spalling. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4986646.
Bedell, S. W., Lauro, P., Ott, J. A., Fogel, K., and Sadana, D. K. Fri . "Layer transfer of bulk gallium nitride by controlled spalling". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4986646.
title = {Layer transfer of bulk gallium nitride by controlled spalling},
author = {Bedell, S. W. and Lauro, P. and Ott, J. A. and Fogel, K. and Sadana, D. K.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1063/1.4986646},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 2,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jul 14 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri Jul 14 00:00:00 EDT 2017}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on July 11, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • The composition and structure of silicon surface layers subjected to combined gallium and nitrogen ion implantation with subsequent annealing have been studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, electron spin resonance, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. A slight redistribution of the implanted atoms before annealing and their substantial migration towards the surface during annealing depending on the sequence of implantations are observed. It is found that about 2% of atoms of the implanted layer are replaced with gallium bonded to nitrogen; however, it is impossible to detect the gallium-nitride phase. At the same time, gallium-enriched inclusions containingmore » ∼25 at % of gallium are detected as candidates for the further synthesis of gallium-nitride inclusions.« less
  • Comprehensive studies of the electrical properties of Mg-doped bulk GaN crystals, grown by high-pressure synthesis, were performed as a function of temperature up to 750{degree}C. Annealing of the samples in nitrogen ambient modifies qualitatively their resistivity values {rho} and the {rho}(T) variation. It was found that our material is characterized by a high concentration of oxygen-related donors and that the charge transport in the studied samples is determined by two types of states, one of shallow character (Mg-related state, E{sub A}{approximately}0.15eV), and the second one much more deep, E{sub 2}{approximately}0.95eV (above the valence band). Depending on the effective concentration ofmore » either states, different resistivities {rho} can be observed: lower resistivity ({rho}{lt}10{sup 4}{Omega}cm at ambient temperature) in samples with dominant E{sub A} states and very high resistivity ({rho}{gt}10{sup 6}{Omega}cm at ambient temperature) in samples with dominant E{sub 2} states. For the first type of samples, annealing at T{sub ann}{lt}500{degree}C leads to a decrease of their resistivity and is associated with an increase of the effective concentration of the shallow Mg acceptors. Annealing of both types of samples at temperatures between 600 and 750{degree}C leads to an increase of the deep state concentration. The presence of hydrogen ambient during annealing of the low-resistivity samples strongly influences their properties. The increase of the sample resistivity and an appearance of a local vibrational mode of hydrogen at 3125 cm{minus}1 were observed. These effects can be removed by annealing in hydrogen-free ambient. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.« less
  • Basic mechanical properties of single crystal gallium nitride are measured. A Vickers (diamond) indentation method was used to determine the hardness and fracture toughness under an applied load of 2N. The average hardness was measured as 12{plus_minus}2 GPa and the average fracture toughness was measured as 0.79{plus_minus}0.10 MPa{radical}m. These values are consistent with the properties of brittle ceramic materials and about twice the values for GaAs. A methodology for examining fracture problems in GaN is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
  • We report the measured phonon density of states of a bulk GaN powder by time-of-flight neutron spectroscopy. The observed one-phonon excitation spectrum consists of two broad bands centered at about 23 and 39 meV corresponding to the acoustic and the first group of optical phonons; two sharp bands of upper optic modes at about 75 and 86 meV; and a gap of 45{endash}65 meV. The phonon dispersion curves, lattice specific heat, and Debye temperature are calculated from fitting the data with a rigid-ion model. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
  • No abstract prepared.