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Title: Characterization of the Triassic Newark Basin of New York and New Jersey for geologic storage of carbon dioxide

Abstract

The Newark Basin is a Triassic-aged rift basin underlying densely populated, industrialized sections of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The Basin is an elongate half-graben encompassing an area of more than 7,510 square-kilometers (2,900 square-miles), and could represent a key storage component for commercial scale management of carbon dioxide emissions via geologic sequestration. The project team first acquired published reports, surface and subsurface maps, and seismic data, which formed the basis for a three-dimensional model framework for the northern end of the Basin incorporating stratigraphic, hydrologic, and water quality data. Field investigations included drilling, coring, and logging of two stratigraphic test borings in Clarkstown, NY (Exit 14 Tandem Lot Well No. 1), drilled to a depth of 2,099 meters (6,885 feet); and Palisades, NY (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Test Well No. 4) drilled to a depth of 549 meters (1,802 feet). Two two-dimensional seismic reflection data lines arrayed perpendicularly were acquired by Schlumberger/WesternGeco to help characterize the structure and stratigraphy and as part of pre-drilling field screening activities for the deep stratigraphic borehole. A total of 47 meters (155 feet) of continuous whole core was recovered from the Tandem Lot boring from depths of 1,393 meters (4,570 feet) to 1,486 meters (4,877 feet). Twenty-five horizontal rotary cores were collected in mudstones and sandstones in the surface casing hole and fifty-two cores were taken in various lithologies in the deep borehole. Rotary core plugs were analyzed by Weatherford Laboratories for routine and advanced testing. Rotary core plug trim end thin sections were evaluated by the New York State Museum for mineralogical analysis and porosity estimation. Using core samples, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory designed and completed laboratory experiments and numerical modeling analyses to characterize the dissolution and reaction of carbon dioxide with formation brine and minerals, and resulting effects on injection rate, pressure, effective storage volume, and carbon dioxide migration within a prospective sandstone reservoir. $$Three potential porous and permeable sandstone units were identified in the Passaic Formation at the New York State Thruway Exit 14 location. Potential Flow Unit 1, at a depth of 643 meters (2,110 feet) to 751 meters (2,465 feet); Potential Flow Unit 2 at a depth of 853 meters (2,798 feet) to 1,000 meters (3,280 feet); and Potential Flow Unit 3, at a depth of 1,114 meters (3,655 feet) to 1,294 meters (4,250 feet). Reactive transport simulations of interactions between carbon dioxide, brine and formation minerals were carried out to evaluate changes in formation water chemistry, mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, and any potential resulting effects on formation permeability. The experimental and modeling analyses suggest that mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions (within the target formation) are not expected to lead to significant changes to the underground hydrologic system over time frames (~30 years) typically relevant for carbon dioxide injection operations. Key findings of this basin characterization study include an estimate of carbon dioxide storage capacity in the Newark Basin. Assuming an average porosity of twelve percent and an aquifer volume of 6.1E+12 meters3, calculated ranges of likely storage capacity range from 1.9 – 20.2 gigatonnes under high temperature (low carbon dioxide density) conditions; and 2.9 – 30.2 gigatonnes under low temperature (low carbon dioxide density) conditions. Intra-basin faulting, geometry of the Palisades Sill, and the presence of altered meta-sediments above and below the Sill, increase potential compartmentalization within the basin. A structural/stratigraphic trap type may occur where porous/permeable sediments are cross-cut by the Palisades Sill. Potential injection intervals are present within the Stockton Formation of the Newark Basin. Additional porous/permeable intervals may be present within sandstones of the Passaic Formation, increasing projected storage capacity. Deeper wedges of strata are likely present in the deeper portions of the basin in southern New York and into northern New Jersey. Abundant mudstones are present in the Passaic, Lockatong, and Stockton Formations. These intervals have the requisite petrophysical properties to form effective primary and secondary containment intervals to industrial-scale sequestration of carbon dioxide in the Newark Basin. Hydro-thermally altered meta-sediments in the region immediately surrounding the top and base of the Palisades Sill is devoid of porosity/permeability and forms an additional effective lateral/vertical sealing cap rock.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Geostock Sandia, LLC, Houston, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Geostock Sandia, LLC, Houston, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1368193
Report Number(s):
DOE-Sandia-0002352
DOE Contract Number:
FE0002352
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Sequestration

Citation Formats

Collins, Daniel J. Characterization of the Triassic Newark Basin of New York and New Jersey for geologic storage of carbon dioxide. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1368193.
Collins, Daniel J. Characterization of the Triassic Newark Basin of New York and New Jersey for geologic storage of carbon dioxide. United States. doi:10.2172/1368193.
Collins, Daniel J. 2017. "Characterization of the Triassic Newark Basin of New York and New Jersey for geologic storage of carbon dioxide". United States. doi:10.2172/1368193. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1368193.
@article{osti_1368193,
title = {Characterization of the Triassic Newark Basin of New York and New Jersey for geologic storage of carbon dioxide},
author = {Collins, Daniel J.},
abstractNote = {The Newark Basin is a Triassic-aged rift basin underlying densely populated, industrialized sections of New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The Basin is an elongate half-graben encompassing an area of more than 7,510 square-kilometers (2,900 square-miles), and could represent a key storage component for commercial scale management of carbon dioxide emissions via geologic sequestration. The project team first acquired published reports, surface and subsurface maps, and seismic data, which formed the basis for a three-dimensional model framework for the northern end of the Basin incorporating stratigraphic, hydrologic, and water quality data. Field investigations included drilling, coring, and logging of two stratigraphic test borings in Clarkstown, NY (Exit 14 Tandem Lot Well No. 1), drilled to a depth of 2,099 meters (6,885 feet); and Palisades, NY (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Test Well No. 4) drilled to a depth of 549 meters (1,802 feet). Two two-dimensional seismic reflection data lines arrayed perpendicularly were acquired by Schlumberger/WesternGeco to help characterize the structure and stratigraphy and as part of pre-drilling field screening activities for the deep stratigraphic borehole. A total of 47 meters (155 feet) of continuous whole core was recovered from the Tandem Lot boring from depths of 1,393 meters (4,570 feet) to 1,486 meters (4,877 feet). Twenty-five horizontal rotary cores were collected in mudstones and sandstones in the surface casing hole and fifty-two cores were taken in various lithologies in the deep borehole. Rotary core plugs were analyzed by Weatherford Laboratories for routine and advanced testing. Rotary core plug trim end thin sections were evaluated by the New York State Museum for mineralogical analysis and porosity estimation. Using core samples, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory designed and completed laboratory experiments and numerical modeling analyses to characterize the dissolution and reaction of carbon dioxide with formation brine and minerals, and resulting effects on injection rate, pressure, effective storage volume, and carbon dioxide migration within a prospective sandstone reservoir. $$Three potential porous and permeable sandstone units were identified in the Passaic Formation at the New York State Thruway Exit 14 location. Potential Flow Unit 1, at a depth of 643 meters (2,110 feet) to 751 meters (2,465 feet); Potential Flow Unit 2 at a depth of 853 meters (2,798 feet) to 1,000 meters (3,280 feet); and Potential Flow Unit 3, at a depth of 1,114 meters (3,655 feet) to 1,294 meters (4,250 feet). Reactive transport simulations of interactions between carbon dioxide, brine and formation minerals were carried out to evaluate changes in formation water chemistry, mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, and any potential resulting effects on formation permeability. The experimental and modeling analyses suggest that mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions (within the target formation) are not expected to lead to significant changes to the underground hydrologic system over time frames (~30 years) typically relevant for carbon dioxide injection operations. Key findings of this basin characterization study include an estimate of carbon dioxide storage capacity in the Newark Basin. Assuming an average porosity of twelve percent and an aquifer volume of 6.1E+12 meters3, calculated ranges of likely storage capacity range from 1.9 – 20.2 gigatonnes under high temperature (low carbon dioxide density) conditions; and 2.9 – 30.2 gigatonnes under low temperature (low carbon dioxide density) conditions. Intra-basin faulting, geometry of the Palisades Sill, and the presence of altered meta-sediments above and below the Sill, increase potential compartmentalization within the basin. A structural/stratigraphic trap type may occur where porous/permeable sediments are cross-cut by the Palisades Sill. Potential injection intervals are present within the Stockton Formation of the Newark Basin. Additional porous/permeable intervals may be present within sandstones of the Passaic Formation, increasing projected storage capacity. Deeper wedges of strata are likely present in the deeper portions of the basin in southern New York and into northern New Jersey. Abundant mudstones are present in the Passaic, Lockatong, and Stockton Formations. These intervals have the requisite petrophysical properties to form effective primary and secondary containment intervals to industrial-scale sequestration of carbon dioxide in the Newark Basin. Hydro-thermally altered meta-sediments in the region immediately surrounding the top and base of the Palisades Sill is devoid of porosity/permeability and forms an additional effective lateral/vertical sealing cap rock.},
doi = {10.2172/1368193},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 6
}

Technical Report:

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  • Supplemental analytical results for 834 stream sediment samples that were collected as part of the SRL-NURE reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) Newark 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle are presented. Results are reported for 23 elements (extractable U, Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn). Analyses are tabulated and displayed graphically on microfiche. Field data and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were open-filed in DPST-79-146-9 (GJBX-128(80)).
  • Results of ground water, stream sediment, and stream water reconnaissance in the National Topographic Map Series Newark 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ quadrangle are presented. Stream sediment and stream water samples were collected from small streams at 840 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 20 square kilometers in rural areas. Ground water samples were collected at 1217 sites or at a nominal density of one site per 15 square kilometers. Neutron activation analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in ground water and surfacemore » water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Statistical summaries of data and a brief description of results are given. A generalized geologic map and a summary of the geology of the area are included. Key data from ground water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) well depth, (3) elemental analyses (U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, and V), and (4) graphical presentation only of Al and Dy analyses. Supplementary data include site descriptors (well age, frequency of use of well, etc.) and tabulated analytical data for Al and Dy. Key data from stream sediment sites include (1) water quality measurements, and (2) important elemental analyses (U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Fe, Mn, Sc, Na, Ti, and V). Supplementary data from stream sediment sites include sample site descriptors (stream characteristics, vegetation, etc.) and additional elemental analyses (Dy, Eu, La, Lu, Sm, and Yb). Key data from stream water sites include (1) water chemistry measurements and (2) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br, Cl, Dy, F, Mn, Na, and V).« less
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  • This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties ofmore » underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial incentives, such as a carbon tax, are needed for coal combustion with CCS to gain market share. In another part of the project we studied the role of geochemical reactions in affecting the probability of CO{sub 2} leakage. A basin-scale simulation tool was modified to account for changes in leakage rates due to permeability alterations, based on simplified mathematical rules for the important geochemical reactions between acidified brines and caprock minerals. In studies of reactive flows in fractured caprocks, we examined the potential for permeability increases, and the extent to which existing reactive transport models would or would not be able to predict it. Using caprock specimens from the Eau Claire and Amherstburg, we found that substantial increases in permeability are possible for caprocks that have significant carbonate content, but minimal alteration is expected otherwise. We also found that while the permeability increase may be substantial, it is much less than what would be predicted from hydrodynamic models based on mechanical aperture alone because the roughness that is generated tends to inhibit flow.« less