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Title: Advances in Light-Front QCD: Supersymmetric Properties of Hadron Physics from Light-Front Holography and Superconformal Algebra

Abstract

A remarkable feature of QCD is that the mass scale $k$ which controls color confinement and light-quark hadron mass scales does not appear explicitly in the QCD Lagrangian. However, de Alfaro, Fubini, and Furlan have shown that a mass scale can appear in the equations of motion without affecting the conformal invariance of the action if one adds a term to the Hamiltonian proportional to the dilatation operator or the special conformal operator. If one applies the same procedure to the light-front Hamiltonian, it leads uniquely to a confinement potential κ 4ζ 2 for mesons, where ζ 2 is the LF radial variable conjugate to the $$q\bar{q}$$ invariant mass. The same result, including spin terms, is obtained using light-front holography$-$the duality between the front form and AdS 5, the space of isometries of the conformal group$-$if one modifies the action of AdS 5 by the dilaton e $κ^2z^2$ in the fifth dimension z. When one generalizes this procedure using superconformal algebra, the resulting light-front eigensolutions predict a unified Regge spectroscopy of meson, baryon, and tetraquarks, including remarkable supersymmetric relations between the masses of mesons and baryons of the same parity. One also predicts observables such as hadron structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and the distribution amplitudes defined from the hadronic light-front wavefunctions. The mass scale κκ underlying confinement and hadron masses can be connected to the parameter Λ $$\overline{MS}$$ in the QCD running coupling by matching the nonperturbative dynamics to the perturbative QCD regime. The result is an effective coupling α s (Q 2) defined at all momenta. The matching of the high and low momentum transfer regimes determines a scale Q 0 which sets the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The use of Q 0 to resolve the factorization scale uncertainty for structure functions and distribution amplitudes, in combination with the principle of maximal conformality for setting the renormalization scales, can greatly improve the precision of perturbative QCD predictions for collider phenomenology. The absence of vacuum excitations of the causal, frame-independent front-form vacuum has important consequences for the cosmological constant. In conclusion, I also discuss evidence that the antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is non-universal; i.e., flavor dependent, and why shadowing and antishadowing phenomena may be incompatible with sum rules for nuclear parton distribution functions.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1367846
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Few-Body Systems
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 58; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0177-7963
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Brodsky, Stanley J. Advances in Light-Front QCD: Supersymmetric Properties of Hadron Physics from Light-Front Holography and Superconformal Algebra. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/s00601-017-1292-4.
Brodsky, Stanley J. Advances in Light-Front QCD: Supersymmetric Properties of Hadron Physics from Light-Front Holography and Superconformal Algebra. United States. doi:10.1007/s00601-017-1292-4.
Brodsky, Stanley J. Wed . "Advances in Light-Front QCD: Supersymmetric Properties of Hadron Physics from Light-Front Holography and Superconformal Algebra". United States. doi:10.1007/s00601-017-1292-4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1367846.
@article{osti_1367846,
title = {Advances in Light-Front QCD: Supersymmetric Properties of Hadron Physics from Light-Front Holography and Superconformal Algebra},
author = {Brodsky, Stanley J.},
abstractNote = {A remarkable feature of QCD is that the mass scale $k$ which controls color confinement and light-quark hadron mass scales does not appear explicitly in the QCD Lagrangian. However, de Alfaro, Fubini, and Furlan have shown that a mass scale can appear in the equations of motion without affecting the conformal invariance of the action if one adds a term to the Hamiltonian proportional to the dilatation operator or the special conformal operator. If one applies the same procedure to the light-front Hamiltonian, it leads uniquely to a confinement potential κ4ζ2 for mesons, where ζ2 is the LF radial variable conjugate to the $q\bar{q}$ invariant mass. The same result, including spin terms, is obtained using light-front holography$-$the duality between the front form and AdS5, the space of isometries of the conformal group$-$if one modifies the action of AdS5 by the dilaton e$κ^2z^2$ in the fifth dimension z. When one generalizes this procedure using superconformal algebra, the resulting light-front eigensolutions predict a unified Regge spectroscopy of meson, baryon, and tetraquarks, including remarkable supersymmetric relations between the masses of mesons and baryons of the same parity. One also predicts observables such as hadron structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and the distribution amplitudes defined from the hadronic light-front wavefunctions. The mass scale κκ underlying confinement and hadron masses can be connected to the parameter Λ$\overline{MS}$ in the QCD running coupling by matching the nonperturbative dynamics to the perturbative QCD regime. The result is an effective coupling αs (Q2) defined at all momenta. The matching of the high and low momentum transfer regimes determines a scale Q0 which sets the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The use of Q0 to resolve the factorization scale uncertainty for structure functions and distribution amplitudes, in combination with the principle of maximal conformality for setting the renormalization scales, can greatly improve the precision of perturbative QCD predictions for collider phenomenology. The absence of vacuum excitations of the causal, frame-independent front-form vacuum has important consequences for the cosmological constant. In conclusion, I also discuss evidence that the antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is non-universal; i.e., flavor dependent, and why shadowing and antishadowing phenomena may be incompatible with sum rules for nuclear parton distribution functions.},
doi = {10.1007/s00601-017-1292-4},
journal = {Few-Body Systems},
number = 3,
volume = 58,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 19 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Apr 19 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • Here, light-front holography, together with superconformal algebra, have provided new insights into the physics of color confinement and the spectroscopy and dynamics of hadrons. As shown by de Alfaro, Fubini and Furlan, a mass scale can appear in the equations of motion without affecting the conformal invariance of the action if one adds a term to the Hamiltonian proportional to the dilatation operator or the special conformal operator. If one applies the procedure of de Alfaro et al. to the frame-independent light-front Hamiltonian, it leads uniquely to a confining qq¯ potential κ 4ζ 2, where ζ 2 is the light-frontmore » radial variable related in momentum space to the qq¯ invariant mass. The same result, including spin terms, is obtained using light-front holography—the duality between the front form and AdS 5, the space of isometries of the conformal group—if one modifies the action of AdS 5 by the dilaton e κ2 z2 in the fifth dimension z. When one generalizes this procedure using superconformal algebra, the resulting light-front eigensolutions lead to a a unified Regge spectroscopy of meson, baryon, and tetraquarks, including supersymmetric relations between their masses and their wavefunctions. One also predicts hadronic light-front wavefunctions and observables such as structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and the distribution amplitudes. The mass scale κ underlying confinement and hadron masses can be connected to the parameter Λ MS¯ in the QCD running coupling by matching the nonperturbative dynamics to the perturbative QCD regime. The result is an effective coupling α s(Q 2) defined at all momenta. The matching of the high and low momentum transfer regimes determines a scale Q 0 which sets the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative hadron dynamics. I also discuss a number of applications of light-front phenomenology.« less
  • Tmore » he QCD light-front Hamiltonian equation H L F Ψ = M 2 Ψ derived from quantization at fixed LF time τ = t + z / c provides a causal, frame-independent method for computing hadron spectroscopy as well as dynamical observables such as structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and distribution amplitudes. he QCD Lagrangian with zero quark mass has no explicit mass scale. de Alfaro, Fubini, and Furlan (dAFF) have made an important observation that a mass scale can appear in the equations of motion without affecting the conformal invariance of the action if one adds a term to the Hamiltonian proportional to the dilatation operator or the special conformal operator. If one applies the dAFF procedure to the QCD light-front Hamiltonian, it leads to a color-confining potential κ 4 ζ 2 for mesons, where ζ 2 is the LF radial variable conjugate to the q q ¯ invariant mass squared. he same result, including spin terms, is obtained using light-front holography, the duality between light-front dynamics and A d S 5 , if one modifies the A d S 5 action by the dilaton e κ 2 z 2 in the fifth dimension z . When one generalizes this procedure using superconformal algebra, the resulting light-front eigensolutions provide a unified Regge spectroscopy of meson, baryon, and tetraquarks, including remarkable supersymmetric relations between the masses of mesons and baryons and a universal Regge slope. he pion q q ¯ eigenstate has zero mass at m q = 0 . he superconformal relations also can be extended to heavy-light quark mesons and baryons. his approach also leads to insights into the physics underlying hadronization at the amplitude level. I will also discuss the remarkable features of the Poincaré invariant, causal vacuum defined by light-front quantization and its impact on the interpretation of the cosmological constant. AdS/QCD also predicts the analytic form of the nonperturbative running coupling α s ( Q 2 ) e - Q 2 / 4 κ 2 . he mass scale κ underlying hadron masses can be connected to the parameter Λ M S ¯ in the QCD running coupling by matching the nonperturbative dynamics to the perturbative QCD regime. he result is an effective coupling α s ( Q 2 ) defined at all momenta. One obtains empirically viable predictions for spacelike and timelike hadronic form factors, structure functions, distribution amplitudes, and transverse momentum distributions. Finally, I address the interesting question of whether the momentum sum rule is valid for nuclear structure functions.« less
  • A fundamental problem in hadron physics is to obtain a relativistic color-confining, first approximation to QCD which can predict both hadron spectroscopy and the frame-independent light-front (LF) wavefunctions underlying hadron dynamics. The QCD Lagrangian with zero quark mass has no explicit mass scale; the classical theory is conformally invariant. Thus, a fundamental problem is to understand how the mass gap and ratios of masses – such as mρ/mp – can arise in chiral QCD. De Alfaro, Fubini, and Furlan have made an important observation that a mass scale can appear in the equations of motion without affecting the conformal invariance of the action if one adds a term to the Hamiltonian proportional to the dilatation operator or the special conformal operator and rescales the time variable. If one applies the same procedure to the light-front Hamiltonian, it leads uniquely to a confinement potential κ 4ζ 2 for mesons, where ζ 2 is the LF radial variable conjugate to themore » $$q\bar{q}$$ invariant mass squared. The same result, including spin terms, is obtained using light-front holography – the duality between light-front dynamics and AdS 5, the space of isometries of the conformal group if one modifies the action of AdS 5 by the dilaton e $κ^2$ z$^2$ in the fifth dimension z . When one generalizes this procedure using superconformal algebra, the resulting light-front eigensolutions predict unified Regge spectroscopy of meson, baryon, and tetraquarks, including remarkable supersymmetric relations between the masses of mesons and baryons of the same parity. One also predicts observables such as hadron structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and the distribution amplitudes defined from the hadronic light-front wavefunctions. The mass scale κ underlying confinement and hadron masses can be connected to the parameter Λ $$\overline{MS}$$ in the QCD running coupling by matching the nonperturbative dynamics to the perturbative QCD regime. The result is an effective coupling α s(Q 2) defined at all momenta. Lastly, the matching of the high and low momentum transfer regimes also determines a scale Q 0 which sets the interface between perturbative and nonperturbative hadron dynamics.« less