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Title: Inception of self-interacting dark matter with dark charge conjugation symmetry

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Journal Article: Published Article
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Physics Letters. Section B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 772; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-09-21 21:19:14; Journal ID: ISSN 0370-2693
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Ma, Ernest. Inception of self-interacting dark matter with dark charge conjugation symmetry. Netherlands: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2017.06.067.
Ma, Ernest. Inception of self-interacting dark matter with dark charge conjugation symmetry. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2017.06.067.
Ma, Ernest. 2017. "Inception of self-interacting dark matter with dark charge conjugation symmetry". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.physletb.2017.06.067.
title = {Inception of self-interacting dark matter with dark charge conjugation symmetry},
author = {Ma, Ernest},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2017.06.067},
journal = {Physics Letters. Section B},
number = C,
volume = 772,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2017,
month = 9

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Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.physletb.2017.06.067

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  • We construct a self-interacting scalar dark matter (DM) model with local discrete Z{sub 3} symmetry that stabilizes a weak scale scalar dark matter X. The model assumes a hidden sector with a local U(1){sub X} dark gauge symmetry, which is broken spontaneously into Z{sub 3} subgroup by nonzero VEV of dark Higgs field φ{sub X} ((φ{sub X})≠0). Compared with global Z{sub 3} DM models, the local Z{sub 3} model has two new extra fields: a dark gauge field Z{sup '} and a dark Higgs field φ (a remnant of the U(1){sub X} breaking). After imposing various constraints including the uppermore » bounds on the spin-independent direct detection cross section and thermal relic density, we find that the scalar DM with mass less than 125 GeV is allowed in the local Z{sub 3} model, in contrary to the global Z{sub 3} model. This is due to new channels in the DM pair annihilations open into Z{sup '} and φ in the local Z{sub 3} model. Most parts of the newly open DM mass region can be probed by XENON1T and other similar future experiments. Also if φ is light enough (a few MeV ∼« less
  • We suggest that two-to-two dark matter fusion may be the relaxation process that resolves the small-scale structure problems of the cold collisionless dark matter paradigm. In order for the fusion cross section to scale correctly across many decades of astrophysical masses from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters, we require the fractional binding energy released to be greater than v^n ~ [10^{-(2-3)}]^n, where n=1,2 depends on local dark sector chemistry. The size of the dark-sector interaction cross sections must be sigma ~ 0.1-1 barn, moderately larger than for Standard Model deuteron fusion, indicating a dark nuclear scale Lambda ~ O(100 MeV).more » Dark fusion firmly predicts constant sigma v below the characteristic velocities of galaxy clusters. Observations of the inner structure of galaxy groups with velocity dispersion of several hundred kilometer per second, of which a handful have been identified, could differentiate dark fusion from a dark photon model.« less
  • Dark matter (DM) with sizeable self-interactions mediated by a light species offers a compelling explanation of the observed galactic substructure; furthermore, the direct coupling between DM and a light particle contributes to the DM annihilation in the early universe. If the DM abundance is due to a dark particle-antiparticle asymmetry, the DM annihilation cross-section can be arbitrarily large, and the coupling of DM to the light species can be significant. We consider the case of asymmetric DM interacting via a light (but not necessarily massless) Abelian gauge vector boson, a dark photon. In the massless dark photon limit, gauge invariancemore » mandates that DM be multicomponent, consisting of positive and negative dark ions of different species which partially bind in neutral dark atoms. We argue that a similar conclusion holds for light dark photons; in particular, we establish that the multi-component and atomic character of DM persists in much of the parameter space where the dark photon is sufficiently light to mediate sizeable DM self-interactions. We discuss the cosmological sequence of events in this scenario, including the dark asymmetry generation, the freeze-out of annihilations, the dark recombination and the phase transition which gives mass to the dark photon. We estimate the effect of self-interactions in DM haloes, taking into account this cosmological history. We place constraints based on the observed ellipticity of large haloes, and identify the regimes where DM self-scattering can affect the dynamics of smaller haloes, bringing theory in better agreement with observations. Moreover, we estimate the cosmological abundance of dark photons in various regimes, and derive pertinent bounds.« less
  • We consider the growth of density perturbations in the presence of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM), proposed by Carlson, Machacek, & Hall. We determine the range of values for the coupling constant {lambda} and the particle mass {ital m}{prime}, for which the power spectrum lies in the {open_quote}{open_quote}allowed{close_quote}{close_quote} range based on constraints from the {ital IRAS} galaxy survey and damped Ly{alpha} systems. Our results show that no combination of parameters can meet both limits. We consider constraints on the 2{leftrightarrow}2 scatterings which keep the SIDM particles in pressure equilibrium, and we show that if such interactions maintain pressure equilibrium down tomore » the present, they will be strong enough to disrupt galaxy mergers and may lead to stripping of galaxy halos as galaxies move through the dark matter background of these particles. Hence, we also investigate the evolution of large-scale structure in the SIDM model when the particles drop out of pressure equilibrium at some higher redshift. The resulting free streaming leads to an additional suppression of small-scale perturbations, but it does not significantly affect our results. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Astronomical Society.}« less
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