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Title: Investigation into Practical Implementations of a Zero Knowledge Protocol.

Abstract

In recent years, the concept of Zero Knowledge Protocols (ZKP) as a useful approach to nuclear warhead verification has become increasingly popular. Several implementations of ZKP have been proposed, driving technology development toward proof of concept demonstrations. Whereas proposed implementations seem to fall within the general class of template-based techniques, all physical implementations of ZKPs proposed to date have a complication: once the instrumentation is prepared, it is no longer authenticatable; the instrument physically contains sensitive information. In this work we explore three different concepts that may offer more authenticatable and practical ZKP implementations and evaluate the sensitive information that may be at risk when doing so: sharing a subset of detector counts in a preloaded image (with spatial information removed), real-time image subtraction, and a new concept, CONfirmation using a Fast-neutron Imaging Detector with Anti-image NULL-positive Time Encoding (CONFIDANTE). CONFIDANTE promises to offer an almost ideal implementation of ZKP: a positive result is indicated by a constant rate at all times enabling the monitoring party the possibility of full access to the instrument before, during, and after confirmation. A prototype of CONFIDANTE was designed, built, and its performance evaluated in a series of measurements of several objects including amore » set of plutonium dioxide Hemispheres. Very encouraging results proving feasibility are presented. 1 Rebecca is currently a graduate student in Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20)
OSTI Identifier:
1367490
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-1649
654173
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
98 NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT, SAFEGUARDS, AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION

Citation Formats

Marleau, Peter, and Krentz-Wee, Rebecca E. Investigation into Practical Implementations of a Zero Knowledge Protocol.. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1367490.
Marleau, Peter, & Krentz-Wee, Rebecca E. Investigation into Practical Implementations of a Zero Knowledge Protocol.. United States. doi:10.2172/1367490.
Marleau, Peter, and Krentz-Wee, Rebecca E. Wed . "Investigation into Practical Implementations of a Zero Knowledge Protocol.". United States. doi:10.2172/1367490. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1367490.
@article{osti_1367490,
title = {Investigation into Practical Implementations of a Zero Knowledge Protocol.},
author = {Marleau, Peter and Krentz-Wee, Rebecca E.},
abstractNote = {In recent years, the concept of Zero Knowledge Protocols (ZKP) as a useful approach to nuclear warhead verification has become increasingly popular. Several implementations of ZKP have been proposed, driving technology development toward proof of concept demonstrations. Whereas proposed implementations seem to fall within the general class of template-based techniques, all physical implementations of ZKPs proposed to date have a complication: once the instrumentation is prepared, it is no longer authenticatable; the instrument physically contains sensitive information. In this work we explore three different concepts that may offer more authenticatable and practical ZKP implementations and evaluate the sensitive information that may be at risk when doing so: sharing a subset of detector counts in a preloaded image (with spatial information removed), real-time image subtraction, and a new concept, CONfirmation using a Fast-neutron Imaging Detector with Anti-image NULL-positive Time Encoding (CONFIDANTE). CONFIDANTE promises to offer an almost ideal implementation of ZKP: a positive result is indicated by a constant rate at all times enabling the monitoring party the possibility of full access to the instrument before, during, and after confirmation. A prototype of CONFIDANTE was designed, built, and its performance evaluated in a series of measurements of several objects including a set of plutonium dioxide Hemispheres. Very encouraging results proving feasibility are presented. 1 Rebecca is currently a graduate student in Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley},
doi = {10.2172/1367490},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The verification of nuclear warheads for arms control faces a paradox: International inspectors must gain high confidence in the authenticity of submitted items while learning nothing about them. Conventional inspection systems featuring ''information barriers'', designed to hide measurments stored in electronic systems, are at risk of tampering and snooping. Here we show the viability of fundamentally new approach to nuclear warhead verification that incorporates a zero-knowledge protocol, designed such that sensitive information is never measured so does not need to be hidden. We interrogate submitted items with energetic neutrons, making in effect, differential measurements of neutron transmission and emission. Calculationsmore » of diversion scenarios show that a high degree of discrimination can be achieved while revealing zero information. Timely demonstration of the viability of such an approach could be critical for the nexxt round of arms-control negotiations, which will likely require verification of individual warheads, rather than whole delivery systems.« less
  • This report was presented at the Basis of Knowledge Implementation Workshop and describes the protocol for oxidizing chemicals.
  • This protocol is indicated when employees are: (1) Exposed to Heat Stress above the TLV; (2) Performing low to moderate work rates with rare excursions to heavy rates; NOT for heavy and very heavy work rates or requiring peak outputs for extended periods; and, (3) Determined to need physiological heat strain monitoring by the cognizant Industrial Hygienist. The requirements are: (1) A work/rest regimen must be established at outset and adjusted as needed during operations (see Appendix A); (2) On-going data collection and review; (3) Rest times must be increased if indicated; (4) Intended for normal, healthy adults. Seasonal medicalmore » screening is recommended; and (5) Training for affected employees regarding this protocol, hydration, self-limitation, lifestyle effects and signs, symptoms and treatment of heat related illnesses. This protocol is to aid industrial hygienists in assessing individual physiological response to employee heat exposures, and provides guidance to identify and reduce heat strain as needed. Physiological monitoring is recommended when heat exposure exceeds the TLV by {ge} 2 C and/or when evaporative cooling is limited or eliminated. Typically, this occurs when the use of personal protective equipment includes impermeable or water vapor restrictive outer garments. This protocol is used to identify when heat strain may be excessive. This is determined through measurements taken during each rest period. If decision criteria are exceeded, changes in work practices shall be implemented immediately to reduce employee heat strain and prevent heat related illnesses up to and including heat stroke, a life threatening condition. This protocol may not be appropriate under all conditions. Sound Industrial Hygiene professional judgment is required. Because the measurements for this protocol occur during the rest phase of the work/rest regimen, the conditions affecting employee heat strain during the work phase must be carefully weighed. Work rate, effecting metabolic heat generation is the most important factor. However, it does have several advantages including: Ease of deployment, high employee acceptance, relatively non-invasive, encourages self-monitoring, enables on-the-spot work/rest regimen adjustments protecting worker health and documents the effectiveness of control methods.« less
  • For discharges to the atmosphere, the standard doses for the Population living near nuclear installations of S.C.K./C.E.N. are demonstrated as a function of the critical method of exposure. Specific studies were undertaken at S.C.K./ C.E.N. for determining factors of dilution and means of deposit in direct relation to meteorological parameters measured routinely. When the diffusive capactiy of the atmosphere and the standard doses for the population of the vicinity are known, which can eventually be corrected, cne obtains at the locality of the discharge ihe source conditions for taking into account the points of simultaneous discharge of the same isotope.more » For discharges into streams, the philosophy of S.C.K./C.E.N. is applied. (HLW)« less