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Title: Participant and spectator scaling of spectator fragments in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at s N N = 19.6 and 22.4 GeV

Abstract

Spectator fragments resulting from relativistic heavy ion collisions, consisting of single protons and neutrons along with groups of stable nuclear fragments up to nitrogen (Z = 7), are measured in PHOBOS. These fragments are observed in Au+Au (root s(NN) = 19.6 GeV) and Cu+Cu (22.4 GeV) collisions at high pseudorapidity (eta). The dominant multiply-charged fragment is the tightly bound helium (alpha), with lithium, beryllium, and boron all clearly seen as a function of collision centrality and pseudorapidity. We observe that in Cu+Cu collisions, it becomes much more favorable for the alpha fragments to be released than lithium. The yields of fragments approximately scale with the number of spectator nucleons, independent of the colliding ion. The shapes of the pseudorapidity distributions of fragments indicate that the average deflection of the fragments away from the beam direction increases for more central collisions. A detailed comparison of the shapes for alpha and lithium fragments indicates that the centrality dependence of the deflections favors a scaling with the number of participants in the collision.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science - Office of Nuclear Physics; National Science Foundation (NSF)
Contributing Org.:
PHOBOS Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1367214
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review C; Journal Volume: 94; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Alver, B., Back, B. B., Baker, M. D., Ballintijn, M., Barton, D. S., Betts, R. R., Bickley, A. A., Bindel, R., Budzanowski, A., Busza, W., Carroll, A., Chai, Z., Chetluru, V., Decowski, M. P., García, E., Gburek, T., George, N., Gulbrandsen, K., Gushue, S., Halliwell, C., Hamblen, J., Harnarine, I., Heintzelman, G. A., Henderson, C., Hofman, D. J., Hollis, R. S., Hołyński, R., Holzman, B., Iordanova, A., Johnson, E., Kane, J. L., Katzy, J., Khan, N., Kucewicz, W., Kulinich, P., Kuo, C. M., Li, W., Lin, W. T., Loizides, C., Manly, S., McLeod, D., Mignerey, A. C., Nouicer, R., Olszewski, A., Pak, R., Park, I. C., Pernegger, H., Reed, C., Remsberg, L. P., Reuter, M., Richardson, E., Roland, C., Roland, G., Rosenberg, L., Sagerer, J., Sarin, P., Sawicki, P., Sedykh, I., Skulski, W., Smith, C. E., Stankiewicz, M. A., Steinberg, P., Stephans, G. S. F., Sukhanov, A., Szostak, A., Tang, J. -L., Tonjes, M. B., Trzupek, A., Vale, C., van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J., Vaurynovich, S. S., Verdier, R., Veres, G. I., Walters, P., Wenger, E., Willhelm, D., Wolfs, F. L. H., Wosiek, B., Woźniak, K., Wuosmaa, A. H., Wyngaardt, S., and Wysłouch, B. Participant and spectator scaling of spectator fragments in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at sNN=19.6 and 22.4 GeV. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024903.
Alver, B., Back, B. B., Baker, M. D., Ballintijn, M., Barton, D. S., Betts, R. R., Bickley, A. A., Bindel, R., Budzanowski, A., Busza, W., Carroll, A., Chai, Z., Chetluru, V., Decowski, M. P., García, E., Gburek, T., George, N., Gulbrandsen, K., Gushue, S., Halliwell, C., Hamblen, J., Harnarine, I., Heintzelman, G. A., Henderson, C., Hofman, D. J., Hollis, R. S., Hołyński, R., Holzman, B., Iordanova, A., Johnson, E., Kane, J. L., Katzy, J., Khan, N., Kucewicz, W., Kulinich, P., Kuo, C. M., Li, W., Lin, W. T., Loizides, C., Manly, S., McLeod, D., Mignerey, A. C., Nouicer, R., Olszewski, A., Pak, R., Park, I. C., Pernegger, H., Reed, C., Remsberg, L. P., Reuter, M., Richardson, E., Roland, C., Roland, G., Rosenberg, L., Sagerer, J., Sarin, P., Sawicki, P., Sedykh, I., Skulski, W., Smith, C. E., Stankiewicz, M. A., Steinberg, P., Stephans, G. S. F., Sukhanov, A., Szostak, A., Tang, J. -L., Tonjes, M. B., Trzupek, A., Vale, C., van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J., Vaurynovich, S. S., Verdier, R., Veres, G. I., Walters, P., Wenger, E., Willhelm, D., Wolfs, F. L. H., Wosiek, B., Woźniak, K., Wuosmaa, A. H., Wyngaardt, S., & Wysłouch, B. Participant and spectator scaling of spectator fragments in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at sNN=19.6 and 22.4 GeV. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024903.
Alver, B., Back, B. B., Baker, M. D., Ballintijn, M., Barton, D. S., Betts, R. R., Bickley, A. A., Bindel, R., Budzanowski, A., Busza, W., Carroll, A., Chai, Z., Chetluru, V., Decowski, M. P., García, E., Gburek, T., George, N., Gulbrandsen, K., Gushue, S., Halliwell, C., Hamblen, J., Harnarine, I., Heintzelman, G. A., Henderson, C., Hofman, D. J., Hollis, R. S., Hołyński, R., Holzman, B., Iordanova, A., Johnson, E., Kane, J. L., Katzy, J., Khan, N., Kucewicz, W., Kulinich, P., Kuo, C. M., Li, W., Lin, W. T., Loizides, C., Manly, S., McLeod, D., Mignerey, A. C., Nouicer, R., Olszewski, A., Pak, R., Park, I. C., Pernegger, H., Reed, C., Remsberg, L. P., Reuter, M., Richardson, E., Roland, C., Roland, G., Rosenberg, L., Sagerer, J., Sarin, P., Sawicki, P., Sedykh, I., Skulski, W., Smith, C. E., Stankiewicz, M. A., Steinberg, P., Stephans, G. S. F., Sukhanov, A., Szostak, A., Tang, J. -L., Tonjes, M. B., Trzupek, A., Vale, C., van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J., Vaurynovich, S. S., Verdier, R., Veres, G. I., Walters, P., Wenger, E., Willhelm, D., Wolfs, F. L. H., Wosiek, B., Woźniak, K., Wuosmaa, A. H., Wyngaardt, S., and Wysłouch, B. Mon . "Participant and spectator scaling of spectator fragments in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at sNN=19.6 and 22.4 GeV". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024903.
@article{osti_1367214,
title = {Participant and spectator scaling of spectator fragments in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at sNN=19.6 and 22.4 GeV},
author = {Alver, B. and Back, B. B. and Baker, M. D. and Ballintijn, M. and Barton, D. S. and Betts, R. R. and Bickley, A. A. and Bindel, R. and Budzanowski, A. and Busza, W. and Carroll, A. and Chai, Z. and Chetluru, V. and Decowski, M. P. and García, E. and Gburek, T. and George, N. and Gulbrandsen, K. and Gushue, S. and Halliwell, C. and Hamblen, J. and Harnarine, I. and Heintzelman, G. A. and Henderson, C. and Hofman, D. J. and Hollis, R. S. and Hołyński, R. and Holzman, B. and Iordanova, A. and Johnson, E. and Kane, J. L. and Katzy, J. and Khan, N. and Kucewicz, W. and Kulinich, P. and Kuo, C. M. and Li, W. and Lin, W. T. and Loizides, C. and Manly, S. and McLeod, D. and Mignerey, A. C. and Nouicer, R. and Olszewski, A. and Pak, R. and Park, I. C. and Pernegger, H. and Reed, C. and Remsberg, L. P. and Reuter, M. and Richardson, E. and Roland, C. and Roland, G. and Rosenberg, L. and Sagerer, J. and Sarin, P. and Sawicki, P. and Sedykh, I. and Skulski, W. and Smith, C. E. and Stankiewicz, M. A. and Steinberg, P. and Stephans, G. S. F. and Sukhanov, A. and Szostak, A. and Tang, J. -L. and Tonjes, M. B. and Trzupek, A. and Vale, C. and van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. and Vaurynovich, S. S. and Verdier, R. and Veres, G. I. and Walters, P. and Wenger, E. and Willhelm, D. and Wolfs, F. L. H. and Wosiek, B. and Woźniak, K. and Wuosmaa, A. H. and Wyngaardt, S. and Wysłouch, B.},
abstractNote = {Spectator fragments resulting from relativistic heavy ion collisions, consisting of single protons and neutrons along with groups of stable nuclear fragments up to nitrogen (Z = 7), are measured in PHOBOS. These fragments are observed in Au+Au (root s(NN) = 19.6 GeV) and Cu+Cu (22.4 GeV) collisions at high pseudorapidity (eta). The dominant multiply-charged fragment is the tightly bound helium (alpha), with lithium, beryllium, and boron all clearly seen as a function of collision centrality and pseudorapidity. We observe that in Cu+Cu collisions, it becomes much more favorable for the alpha fragments to be released than lithium. The yields of fragments approximately scale with the number of spectator nucleons, independent of the colliding ion. The shapes of the pseudorapidity distributions of fragments indicate that the average deflection of the fragments away from the beam direction increases for more central collisions. A detailed comparison of the shapes for alpha and lithium fragments indicates that the centrality dependence of the deflections favors a scaling with the number of participants in the collision.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevC.94.024903},
journal = {Physical Review C},
number = 2,
volume = 94,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Aug 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}