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Title: Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution

Abstract

The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates, indicative of recent retroposition events, the primary mode of SINE evolutions. PCR analysis of one young Alu subfamily (Sb2) member found in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene apparently revealed the presence of this element in the green monkey, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee genomes, as well as the human genome. However, sequence analysis of these genomes revealed a highly mutated, older, primate-specific Alu element was present at this position in the nonhuman primates. Comparison of the flanking DNA sequences upstream of this Alu insertion corresponded to evolution expected for standard primate phylogeny, but comparison of the Alu repeat sequences revealed that the human element departed from this phylogeny. The change in the human sequence apparently occurred by a gene conversion event only within the Alu element itself, converting it from one of the oldest to one of the youngest Alu subfamilies. Although gene conversions of Alu elements are clearly verymore » rare, this finding shows that such events can occur and contribute to specific cases of SINE subfamily evolution.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
  3. Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology|[Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation, New Orleans, LA (United States). Lab. of Molecular Genetics
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
136719
DOE Contract Number:  
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Molecular and Cellular Biology; Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: PBD: Jan 1995
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
55 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, BASIC STUDIES; PRIMATES; DNA SEQUENCING; GENETIC VARIABILITY; GENES; GENE RECOMBINATION; BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; NUCLEOTIDES

Citation Formats

Kass, D.H., Batzer, M.A., and Deininger, P.L. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution. United States: N. p., 1995. Web. doi:10.1128/MCB.15.1.19.
Kass, D.H., Batzer, M.A., & Deininger, P.L. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution. United States. doi:10.1128/MCB.15.1.19.
Kass, D.H., Batzer, M.A., and Deininger, P.L. Sun . "Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution". United States. doi:10.1128/MCB.15.1.19.
@article{osti_136719,
title = {Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution},
author = {Kass, D.H. and Batzer, M.A. and Deininger, P.L.},
abstractNote = {The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates, indicative of recent retroposition events, the primary mode of SINE evolutions. PCR analysis of one young Alu subfamily (Sb2) member found in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene apparently revealed the presence of this element in the green monkey, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee genomes, as well as the human genome. However, sequence analysis of these genomes revealed a highly mutated, older, primate-specific Alu element was present at this position in the nonhuman primates. Comparison of the flanking DNA sequences upstream of this Alu insertion corresponded to evolution expected for standard primate phylogeny, but comparison of the Alu repeat sequences revealed that the human element departed from this phylogeny. The change in the human sequence apparently occurred by a gene conversion event only within the Alu element itself, converting it from one of the oldest to one of the youngest Alu subfamilies. Although gene conversions of Alu elements are clearly very rare, this finding shows that such events can occur and contribute to specific cases of SINE subfamily evolution.},
doi = {10.1128/MCB.15.1.19},
journal = {Molecular and Cellular Biology},
number = 1,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1995},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1995}
}