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Title: Multifunctional Nanostructured Conductive Polymer Gels: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

Abstract

Conductive polymers have attracted significant interest over the past few decades because they synergize the advantageous features of conventional polymeric materials and organic conductors. With rationally designed nanostructures, conductive polymers can further exhibit exceptional mechanical, electrical, and optical properties because of their confined dimensions at the nanoscale level. Among various nanostructured conductive polymers, conductive polymer gels (CPGs) with synthetically tunable hierarchical 3D network structures show great potential for a wide range of applications, such as bioelectronics, and energy storage/conversion devices owing to their structural features. CPGs retain the properties of nanosized conductive polymers during the assembly of the nanobuilding blocks into a monolithic macroscopic structure while generating structure-derived features from the highly cross-linked network. In this Account, we review our recent progress on the synthesis, properties, and novel applications of dopant cross-linked CPGs. We first describe the synthetic strategies, in which molecules with multiple functional groups are adopted as cross-linkers to cross-link conductive polymer chains into a 3D molecular network. These cross-linking molecules also act as dopants to improve the electrical conductivity of the gel network. The microstructure and physical/chemical properties of CPGs can be tuned by controlling the synthetic conditions such as species of monomers and cross-linkers, reaction temperature,more » and solvents. By incorporating other functional polymers or particles into the CPG matrix, hybrid gels have been synthesized with tailored structures. These hybrid gel materials retain the functionalities from each component, as well as enable synergic effects to improve mechanical and electrical properties of CPGs. We then introduce the unique structure-derived properties of the CPGs. The network facilitates both electronic and ionic transport owing to the continuous pathways for electrons and hierarchical pores for ion diffusion. CPGs also provide high surface area and solvent compatibility, similar to natural gels. With these improved properties, CPGs have been explored to enable novel conceptual devices in diverse applications from smart electronics and ultrasensitive biosensors, to energy storage and conversion devices. CPGs have also been adopted for developing hybrid materials with multifunctionalities, such as stimuli responsiveness, self-healing properties, and super-repellency to liquid. With synthetically tunable physical/chemical properties, CPGs emerge as a unique material platform to develop novel multifunctional materials that have the potential to impact electronics, energy, and environmental technologies. Our hope is that this Account promotes further efforts toward synthetic control, fundamental investigation, and application exploration of CPGs.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. The Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Program and Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
  2. Nanjing Univ. (China). Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
The Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC)
OSTI Identifier:
1366323
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1425655
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0012673
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Accounts of Chemical Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 50; Journal Issue: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 0001-4842
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Zhao, Fei, Shi, Ye, Pan, Lijia, and Yu, Guihua. Multifunctional Nanostructured Conductive Polymer Gels: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00191.
Zhao, Fei, Shi, Ye, Pan, Lijia, & Yu, Guihua. Multifunctional Nanostructured Conductive Polymer Gels: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00191.
Zhao, Fei, Shi, Ye, Pan, Lijia, and Yu, Guihua. Mon . "Multifunctional Nanostructured Conductive Polymer Gels: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00191.
@article{osti_1366323,
title = {Multifunctional Nanostructured Conductive Polymer Gels: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications},
author = {Zhao, Fei and Shi, Ye and Pan, Lijia and Yu, Guihua},
abstractNote = {Conductive polymers have attracted significant interest over the past few decades because they synergize the advantageous features of conventional polymeric materials and organic conductors. With rationally designed nanostructures, conductive polymers can further exhibit exceptional mechanical, electrical, and optical properties because of their confined dimensions at the nanoscale level. Among various nanostructured conductive polymers, conductive polymer gels (CPGs) with synthetically tunable hierarchical 3D network structures show great potential for a wide range of applications, such as bioelectronics, and energy storage/conversion devices owing to their structural features. CPGs retain the properties of nanosized conductive polymers during the assembly of the nanobuilding blocks into a monolithic macroscopic structure while generating structure-derived features from the highly cross-linked network. In this Account, we review our recent progress on the synthesis, properties, and novel applications of dopant cross-linked CPGs. We first describe the synthetic strategies, in which molecules with multiple functional groups are adopted as cross-linkers to cross-link conductive polymer chains into a 3D molecular network. These cross-linking molecules also act as dopants to improve the electrical conductivity of the gel network. The microstructure and physical/chemical properties of CPGs can be tuned by controlling the synthetic conditions such as species of monomers and cross-linkers, reaction temperature, and solvents. By incorporating other functional polymers or particles into the CPG matrix, hybrid gels have been synthesized with tailored structures. These hybrid gel materials retain the functionalities from each component, as well as enable synergic effects to improve mechanical and electrical properties of CPGs. We then introduce the unique structure-derived properties of the CPGs. The network facilitates both electronic and ionic transport owing to the continuous pathways for electrons and hierarchical pores for ion diffusion. CPGs also provide high surface area and solvent compatibility, similar to natural gels. With these improved properties, CPGs have been explored to enable novel conceptual devices in diverse applications from smart electronics and ultrasensitive biosensors, to energy storage and conversion devices. CPGs have also been adopted for developing hybrid materials with multifunctionalities, such as stimuli responsiveness, self-healing properties, and super-repellency to liquid. With synthetically tunable physical/chemical properties, CPGs emerge as a unique material platform to develop novel multifunctional materials that have the potential to impact electronics, energy, and environmental technologies. Our hope is that this Account promotes further efforts toward synthetic control, fundamental investigation, and application exploration of CPGs.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00191},
journal = {Accounts of Chemical Research},
number = 7,
volume = 50,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 26 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Jun 26 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00191

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 21works
Citation information provided by
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  • Conductive polymers have attracted significant interest over the past few decades because they synergize the advantageous features of conventional polymeric materials and organic conductors. With rationally designed nanostructures, conductive polymers can further exhibit exceptional mechanical, electrical, and optical properties because of their confined dimensions at the nanoscale level. Among various nanostructured conductive polymers, conductive polymer gels (CPGs) with synthetically tunable hierarchical 3D network structures show great potential for a wide range of applications, such as bioelectronics, and energy storage/conversion devices owing to their structural features. CPGs retain the properties of nanosized conductive polymers during the assembly of the nanobuilding blocksmore » into a monolithic macroscopic structure while generating structure-derived features from the highly cross-linked network. In this Account, we review our recent progress on the synthesis, properties, and novel applications of dopant cross-linked CPGs. We first describe the synthetic strategies, in which molecules with multiple functional groups are adopted as cross-linkers to cross-link conductive polymer chains into a 3D molecular network. These cross-linking molecules also act as dopants to improve the electrical conductivity of the gel network. The microstructure and physical/chemical properties of CPGs can be tuned by controlling the synthetic conditions such as species of monomers and cross-linkers, reaction temperature, and solvents. By incorporating other functional polymers or particles into the CPG matrix, hybrid gels have been synthesized with tailored structures. These hybrid gel materials retain the functionalities from each component, as well as enable synergic effects to improve mechanical and electrical properties of CPGs. We then introduce the unique structure-derived properties of the CPGs. The network facilitates both electronic and ionic transport owing to the continuous pathways for electrons and hierarchical pores for ion diffusion. CPGs also provide high surface area and solvent compatibility, similar to natural gels. With these improved properties, CPGs have been explored to enable novel conceptual devices in diverse applications from smart electronics and ultrasensitive biosensors, to energy storage and conversion devices. CPGs have also been adopted for developing hybrid materials with multifunctionalities, such as stimuli responsiveness, self-healing properties, and super-repellency to liquid. With synthetically tunable physical/chemical properties, CPGs emerge as a unique material platform to develop novel multifunctional materials that have the potential to impact electronics, energy, and environmental technologies. Our hope is that this Account promotes further efforts toward synthetic control, fundamental investigation, and application exploration of CPGs.« less
  • The synthesis and characterization of lead telluride (PbTe) gels and aerogels with nanostructured features of potential benefit for enhanced thermoelectrics is reported. In this approach, discrete thiolate-capped PbTe nanoparticles were synthesized by a solution-based approach followed by oxidation-induced nanoparticle assembly with tetranitromethane or hydrogen peroxide to form wet gels. Drying of the wet gels by supercritical CO₂ extraction yielded aerogels, whereas xerogels were produced by ambient pressure bench top drying. The gels consist of an interconnected network of colloidal nanoparticles and pores with surface areas up to 74 m² g -1. The thermal stability of the nanostructures relative to nanoparticlesmore » was probed with the help of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The aerogels were observed to sublime at a higher temperature and over a larger range (425–500 °C) relative to the precursor nanoparticles. TGA-DSC suggests that organic capping groups can be removed in the region 250–450 °C, and melting of PbTe nanoparticles occurs near the temperature for bulk materials (ca. 920 °C). The good thermal stability combined with the presence of nanoscale interfaces suggests PbTe gels may show promise in thermoelectric devices.« less
  • Highlights: • SrSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: Eu{sup 2+} phosphor was prepared by polymer metal complex (pechini method). • The annealing time was decreased from 6 h in solid state method to 3 h. • The particles are crystalline and dispersed well with average size 6.5 μm. - Abstract: Green emitting Sr{sub (1−x)}Si{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}: xEu{sup 2+} (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1) phosphors were synthesized by polymer metal complex or pechini method. The XRD results confirm the formation of a pure phase at 1400 °C for 3 h. The SEM and particles size results indicate thatmore » the prepared phosphor consists of a polyhedral crystalline shape with well dispersed and the average particle size around 6.5 μm. The maximum PL intensity was found at 0.04% Eu{sup 2+} with a wide emission band between 460 and 640 nm and a green emission peak at 531.4 nm. The external quantum efficiency of 0.04% Eu{sup 2+} sample was 43.13%. The results indicate that pechini method is an alternative way and close in efficiency to the solid state method to prepare SrSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2} phosphor with higher homogeneity and more uniform size distribution for near UV and blue region applications for white light emitting diodes WLEDs.« less