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Title: The theory and application of bipolar transistors as displacement damage sensors.


Abstract not provided.

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Tonigan, Andrew M. The theory and application of bipolar transistors as displacement damage sensors.. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Tonigan, Andrew M. The theory and application of bipolar transistors as displacement damage sensors.. United States.
Tonigan, Andrew M. Wed . "The theory and application of bipolar transistors as displacement damage sensors.". United States. doi:.
title = {The theory and application of bipolar transistors as displacement damage sensors.},
author = {Tonigan, Andrew M},
abstractNote = {Abstract not provided.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}

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  • A method of fast neutron metrology and a basis for prediction of changes in performance parameters of semiconductor devices in power plant radiation environments has been established using Cf-252 sources. Three general purpose NPN bipolar transistors (PN2222A, ECG-196, and ECG-184) were chosen as the neutron damage monitors and the change in inverse d.c. current gain before and after irradiation was chosen as the damage parameter for the measurement. The main findings of the investigation were as follows: the change in inverse d.c. current gain for PN2222A transistors was approximately a linear function of the neutron fluence up to 2.0E15 n(1MeV)/cm/supmore » 2/. The concept of 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence which characterizes an incident energy-fluence spectrum in terms of the fluence of monoenergetic neutrons at 1 MeV, is in error for application to common transistors in a typical power plant environment. Finally, the normalized damage coefficient which is the ratio of damage to 1-MeV equivalent neutron fluence divided by the measured base transit time of individual transistors, for all three types of transistors is nearly the same with an average value of 1.27E - 7 +/- 15.0% cm/sup 2//m(1 MeV).Sec.« less
  • Polysilicon contacts to the base and emitter of bipolar transistors have played a key role in improving the switching speed and packing density of bipolar integrated circuits. One improvement that results from contacting the emitter with polysilicon instead of metal is that the base current of the device is significantly reduced. No model currently exists to adequately explain the electronic properties of these contacts. The difficulties that have arisen in modeling minority-carrier transport in polysilicon-contacted emitters can be largely attributed to the complex and poorly understood nature of the polysilicon/single-crystal silicon interface. The objective of this work was to providemore » a better understanding of polysilicon emitter contacts. To that end, a series of experiments were performed that examine most of the relevant material and processing parameters and correlate the structure of the polysilicon/monosilicon interface to the electrical characteristics of the transistor. In addition, a novel approach was taken in the modeling of transport effects in these emitters to quantify the minority-carrier blocking properties of the polysilicon contacts. Device with native or chemical oxides between the polysilicon and single-crystal silicon regions were considered in this work. Experimental results show that extremely low values of base current can be obtained without resorting to the use of chemical oxides.« less
  • The effect of the interfacial viscosities upon two-phase displacement in capillary systems is quantitatively determined. The conditions leading to static stability of interfaces in sinusoidal pore are also presented. An integral mechanical energy balance is used to explain the relative effects of the interfaxial viscosities, interfacial tension, and wetting during displacement in a single, cylindrical capillary. For values of the contact angle >0/sup 0/ and <180/sup 0/, the effect of the interfacial viscosities is to increase the resistance to displacement regardless of the wetting condition. A similar approach is used to determine the relative effects of the interfacial viscosities, interfacialmore » tension, and wetting upon displacement in a capillary whose radius is a sinusoidal function of axial position. The effect of the interfacial viscosities upon the pressure and flow fields generated by the displacement of a gas by a liquid in the channel formed between two parallel plates is determined. A thermodynamic analysis is used to predict stable, static positions of a liquid-liquid interface in a sinusoidal pore as a function of pressure drop. Contact angle hysteresis effects are taken fully into account. Results show that instabilities can lead to spontaneous movement of the common line. An extension of the analysis to two interfaces shows the cooperative effect that one interface has on the stability of another.« less