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Title: Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings. Part II: Motion Correction

Abstract

Acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) are a valuable tool for making high-precision measurements of turbulence, and moorings are a convenient and ubiquitous platform for making many kinds of measurements in the ocean. However, because of concerns that mooring motion can contaminate turbulence measurements and that acoustic Doppler profilers make middepth velocity measurements relatively easy, ADVs are not frequently deployed from moorings. This work demonstrates that inertial motion measurements can be used to reduce motion contamination from moored ADV velocity measurements. Three distinct mooring platforms were deployed in a tidal channel with inertial-motion-sensor-equipped ADVs. In each case, motion correction based on the inertial measurements reduces mooring motion contamination of velocity measurements. The spectra from these measurements are consistent with other measurements in tidal channels and have an f –5/3 slope at high frequencies - consistent with Kolmogorov's theory of isotropic turbulence. Motion correction also improves estimates of cross spectra and Reynolds stresses. A comparison of turbulence dissipation with flow speed and turbulence production indicates a bottom boundary layer production-dissipation balance during ebb and flood that is consistent with the strong tidal forcing at the site. Finally, these results indicate that inertial-motion-sensor-equipped ADVs are a valuable new tool for making high-precision turbulence measurementsmore » from moorings.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  3. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  4. Nortek AS, Rud (Norway)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1364677
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1373672
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-67282
Journal ID: ISSN 0739-0572
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 0739-0572
Publisher:
American Meteorological Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
16 TIDAL AND WAVE POWER; turbulence; acoustic measurements/effects; buoy observations; in situ oceanic observations; instrumentation/sensors; renewable energy

Citation Formats

Kilcher, Levi F., Thomson, Jim, Harding, Samuel, and Nylund, Sven. Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings. Part II: Motion Correction. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0213.1.
Kilcher, Levi F., Thomson, Jim, Harding, Samuel, & Nylund, Sven. Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings. Part II: Motion Correction. United States. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0213.1.
Kilcher, Levi F., Thomson, Jim, Harding, Samuel, and Nylund, Sven. Tue . "Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings. Part II: Motion Correction". United States. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0213.1.
@article{osti_1364677,
title = {Turbulence Measurements from Compliant Moorings. Part II: Motion Correction},
author = {Kilcher, Levi F. and Thomson, Jim and Harding, Samuel and Nylund, Sven},
abstractNote = {Acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) are a valuable tool for making high-precision measurements of turbulence, and moorings are a convenient and ubiquitous platform for making many kinds of measurements in the ocean. However, because of concerns that mooring motion can contaminate turbulence measurements and that acoustic Doppler profilers make middepth velocity measurements relatively easy, ADVs are not frequently deployed from moorings. This work demonstrates that inertial motion measurements can be used to reduce motion contamination from moored ADV velocity measurements. Three distinct mooring platforms were deployed in a tidal channel with inertial-motion-sensor-equipped ADVs. In each case, motion correction based on the inertial measurements reduces mooring motion contamination of velocity measurements. The spectra from these measurements are consistent with other measurements in tidal channels and have an f–5/3 slope at high frequencies - consistent with Kolmogorov's theory of isotropic turbulence. Motion correction also improves estimates of cross spectra and Reynolds stresses. A comparison of turbulence dissipation with flow speed and turbulence production indicates a bottom boundary layer production-dissipation balance during ebb and flood that is consistent with the strong tidal forcing at the site. Finally, these results indicate that inertial-motion-sensor-equipped ADVs are a valuable new tool for making high-precision turbulence measurements from moorings.},
doi = {10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0213.1},
journal = {Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology},
number = 6,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jun 20 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Jun 20 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1175/JTECH-D-16-0213.1

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • Acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) are a valuable tool for making highprecision measurements of turbulence, and moorings are a convenient and ubiquitous platform for making many kinds of measurements in the ocean. However—because of concerns that mooring motion can contaminate turbulence measurements and acoustic Doppler profilers are relatively easy to deploy—ADVs are not frequently deployed from moorings. This work details a method for measuring turbulence using moored ADVs that corrects for mooring motion using measurements from inertial motion sensors. Three distinct mooring platforms were deployed in a tidal channel with inertial motion-sensor-equipped ADVs. In each case, the motion correction based onmore » the inertial measurements dramatically reduced contamination from mooring motion. The spectra from these measurements have a shape that is consistent with other measurements in tidal channels, and have a f^(5/3) slope at high frequencies—consistent with Kolmogorov’s theory of isotropic turbulence. Motion correction also improves estimates of cross-spectra and Reynold’s stresses. Comparison of turbulence dissipation with flow speed and turbulence production indicates a bottom boundary layer production-dissipation balance during ebb and flood that is consistent with the strong tidal forcing at the site. These results indicate that inertial-motion-sensor-equipped ADVs are a valuable new tool for measuring turbulence from moorings.« less
  • Acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) are a valuable tool for making high-precision measurements of turbulence, and moorings are a convenient and ubiquitous platform for making many kinds of measurements in the ocean. However, because of concerns that mooring motion can contaminate turbulence measurements and that acoustic Doppler profilers make middepth velocity measurements relatively easy, ADVs are not frequently deployed from moorings. This work demonstrates that inertial motion measurements can be used to reduce motion contamination from moored ADV velocity measurements. Three distinct mooring platforms were deployed in a tidal channel with inertial-motion-sensor-equipped ADVs. In each case, motion correction based on themore » inertial measurements reduces mooring motion contamination of velocity measurements. The spectra from these measurements are consistent with other measurements in tidal channels and have an f –5/3 slope at high frequencies - consistent with Kolmogorov's theory of isotropic turbulence. Motion correction also improves estimates of cross spectra and Reynolds stresses. A comparison of turbulence dissipation with flow speed and turbulence production indicates a bottom boundary layer production-dissipation balance during ebb and flood that is consistent with the strong tidal forcing at the site. Finally, these results indicate that inertial-motion-sensor-equipped ADVs are a valuable new tool for making high-precision turbulence measurements from moorings.« less
  • High-fidelity measurements of turbulence in the ocean have long been challenging to collect, in particular in the middle of the water column. In response, a measurement technique has been developed to deploy an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) to mid-water locations on a compliant mooring. A variety of instrumentation platforms have been deployed as part of this work with a range of dynamic motion characteristics. The platforms discussed herein include the streamlined StableMoor™ buoy (SMB), the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) system based on a conventional 0.9 m spherical buoy, and a 100 lb sounding weight suspended from the stern of amore » research vessel. The ADV head motion is computed from inertial motion sensors integrated into an ADV, and the spectra of these signals are investigated to quantify the motion of each platform. The SMB with a single ADV head mounted on the nose provided the most stable platform for the measurement of tidal turbulence in the inertial sub-range for flow speeds exceeding 1:0 ms -1. The modification of the SMB with a transverse wing configuration for multiple ADVs showed a similar frequency response to the nose configuration in the horizontal plane but with large contamination in the vertical direction as a result of platform roll. While the ADV motion on the TTM was significant in the horizontal directions, the vertical motion of this configuration was the most stable of all configurations tested. The sounding weight measurements showed the greatest motion at the ADV head but are likely to be influenced by both prop-wash and vessel motion.« less
    Cited by 2
  • High-fidelity measurements of turbulence in the ocean have long been challenging to collect, in particular in the middle of the water column. In response, a measurement technique has been developed to deploy an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) to midwater locations on a compliant mooring. A variety of instrumentation platforms have been deployed as part of this work with a range of dynamic motion characteristics. The platforms discussed herein include the streamlined StableMoor buoy (SMB), the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) system based on a conventional 0.9-m spherical buoy, and a 100-lb sounding weight suspended from the stern of a research vessel.more » The ADV head motion is computed from inertial motion sensors integrated into an ADV, and the spectra of these signals are investigated to quantify the motion of each platform. The SMB with a single ADV head mounted on the nose provided the most stable platform for the measurement of tidal turbulence in the inertial subrange for flow speeds exceeding 1.0 m s-1. The modification of the SMB with a transverse wing configuration for multiple ADVs showed a similar frequency response to the nose configuration in the horizontal plane but with large contamination in the vertical direction as a result of platform roll. While the ADV motion on the TTM was significant in the horizontal directions, the vertical motion of this configuration was the most stable of all configurations tested. The sounding weight measurements showed the greatest motion at the ADV head but are likely to be influenced by both prop-wash and vessel motion.« less
    Cited by 2
  • High-fidelity measurements of turbulence in the ocean have long been challenging to collect, in particular in the middle of the water column. In response, a measurement technique has been developed to deploy an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) to mid-water locations on a compliant mooring. A variety of instrumentation platforms have been deployed as part of this work with a range of dynamic motion characteristics. The platforms discussed herein include the streamlined StableMoor™ buoy (SMB), the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) system based on a conventional 0.9 m spherical buoy, and a 100 lb sounding weight suspended from the stern of amore » research vessel. The ADV head motion is computed from inertial motion sensors integrated into an ADV, and the spectra of these signals are investigated to quantify the motion of each platform. The SMB with a single ADV head mounted on the nose provided the most stable platform for the measurement of tidal turbulence in the inertial sub-range for flow speeds exceeding 1:0 ms -1. The modification of the SMB with a transverse wing configuration for multiple ADVs showed a similar frequency response to the nose configuration in the horizontal plane but with large contamination in the vertical direction as a result of platform roll. While the ADV motion on the TTM was significant in the horizontal directions, the vertical motion of this configuration was the most stable of all configurations tested. The sounding weight measurements showed the greatest motion at the ADV head but are likely to be influenced by both prop-wash and vessel motion.« less