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Title: Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

Abstract

Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. Themore » total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58% of all diesel BC in Russia.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1364376
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-118567
Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Grant/Contract Number:
AC0576RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online); Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 17; Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Kholod, Nazar, Evans, Meredydd, and Kuklinski, Teresa. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.5194/ACP-16-11267-2016.
Kholod, Nazar, Evans, Meredydd, & Kuklinski, Teresa. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources. United States. doi:10.5194/ACP-16-11267-2016.
Kholod, Nazar, Evans, Meredydd, and Kuklinski, Teresa. 2016. "Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources". United States. doi:10.5194/ACP-16-11267-2016. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1364376.
@article{osti_1364376,
title = {Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources},
author = {Kholod, Nazar and Evans, Meredydd and Kuklinski, Teresa},
abstractNote = {Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58% of all diesel BC in Russia.},
doi = {10.5194/ACP-16-11267-2016},
journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)},
number = 17,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • Black carbon (BC) is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30% of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputermore » Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport) with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC) in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58% of all diesel BC in Russia.« less
  • Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys tomore » understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.« less
  • This article assesses options and challenges of reducing black carbon emissions from diesel vehicles in Russia. Black carbon is a product of incomplete diesel combustion and is a component of fine particulate matter. Particulate matter emissions have adverse health impacts, causing cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer; black carbon is also a large climate forcer. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources affect not only the Russian territory but also contribute to overall pollution. Here, this paper analyzes current ecological standards for vehicles and fuel, evaluates policies for emission reductions from existing diesel vehicle fleet, and assesses Russia’s attempts to encouragemore » the use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel. Based on best practices of black carbon emission reductions, this paper provides a number of policy recommendations for Russia.« less
  • This article assesses options and challenges of reducing black carbon emissions from diesel vehicles in Russia. Black carbon is a product of incomplete diesel combustion and is a component of fine particulate matter. Particulate matter emissions have adverse health impacts, causing cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer; black carbon is also a large climate forcer. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources affect not only the Russian territory but also contribute to overall pollution. Here, this paper analyzes current ecological standards for vehicles and fuel, evaluates policies for emission reductions from existing diesel vehicle fleet, and assesses Russia’s attempts to encouragemore » the use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel. Based on best practices of black carbon emission reductions, this paper provides a number of policy recommendations for Russia.« less
  • This report presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this report analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60% of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5% (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder). Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the report also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators.more » The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC in 2014.« less