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Title: Bio-reinforced composite development for additive manufacturing: Nanocellulose-PLA

Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is transitioning from being only a prototyping method towards becoming a manufacturing technique for the quick production of parts with complex geometries. For the complete realization of this transition, the mechanical properties of the printed parts have to meet the requirements of actual load-bearing structural components. Integration of a reinforcing second phase into a polymer is a viable approach for the improvement of resins mechanical performance. Addition of carbon fibers into acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) has already been shown to improve its mechanical properties compared to the neat ABS resin (both additively manufactured), and led to the manufacture of world s first 3D-printed car. However, both ABS resin and carbon fibers are petroleum-based products, and there is a continuous search for alternative, bio-sourced, renewable materials as a feedstock for manufacturing. Towards this direction, we have investigated the potential of cellulose nanofibril-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) resin systems as an alternative. CNF-PLA composite systems with up to 40 wt% CNF loadings were prepared via compression molding technique and tested. Significant improvements in both tensile strength (80%) and elastic modulus (128%) were observed. Filaments prepared from the same compositions were also successfully 3D-printed into tensile testing specimens with up to 30% CNFmore » concentrations, and showed similar improvements in mechanical performance. Although CNFs were not individually dispersed in PLA matrix, they were observed to be well blended with the polymer based on SEM micrographs. In summary, preparation and 3D-printing of a 100% bio-based feedstock material with the mechanical properties comparable to the carbon fiber-ABS system was successfully demonstrated that it can open up new window of opportunities in the additive manufacturing industry. Acknowledgement Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1364293
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2017/315
ED2802000; CEED492; CRADA/NFE-15-05661
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS

Citation Formats

Tekinalp, Halil L., Lu, Yuan, Kunc, Vlastimil, Duty, Chad E., Love, Lonnie J., Peter, William H., and Ozcan, Soydan. Bio-reinforced composite development for additive manufacturing: Nanocellulose-PLA. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.2172/1364293.
Tekinalp, Halil L., Lu, Yuan, Kunc, Vlastimil, Duty, Chad E., Love, Lonnie J., Peter, William H., & Ozcan, Soydan. Bio-reinforced composite development for additive manufacturing: Nanocellulose-PLA. United States. doi:10.2172/1364293.
Tekinalp, Halil L., Lu, Yuan, Kunc, Vlastimil, Duty, Chad E., Love, Lonnie J., Peter, William H., and Ozcan, Soydan. 2016. "Bio-reinforced composite development for additive manufacturing: Nanocellulose-PLA". United States. doi:10.2172/1364293. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1364293.
@article{osti_1364293,
title = {Bio-reinforced composite development for additive manufacturing: Nanocellulose-PLA},
author = {Tekinalp, Halil L. and Lu, Yuan and Kunc, Vlastimil and Duty, Chad E. and Love, Lonnie J. and Peter, William H. and Ozcan, Soydan},
abstractNote = {Additive manufacturing (AM) is transitioning from being only a prototyping method towards becoming a manufacturing technique for the quick production of parts with complex geometries. For the complete realization of this transition, the mechanical properties of the printed parts have to meet the requirements of actual load-bearing structural components. Integration of a reinforcing second phase into a polymer is a viable approach for the improvement of resins mechanical performance. Addition of carbon fibers into acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) has already been shown to improve its mechanical properties compared to the neat ABS resin (both additively manufactured), and led to the manufacture of world s first 3D-printed car. However, both ABS resin and carbon fibers are petroleum-based products, and there is a continuous search for alternative, bio-sourced, renewable materials as a feedstock for manufacturing. Towards this direction, we have investigated the potential of cellulose nanofibril-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) resin systems as an alternative. CNF-PLA composite systems with up to 40 wt% CNF loadings were prepared via compression molding technique and tested. Significant improvements in both tensile strength (80%) and elastic modulus (128%) were observed. Filaments prepared from the same compositions were also successfully 3D-printed into tensile testing specimens with up to 30% CNF concentrations, and showed similar improvements in mechanical performance. Although CNFs were not individually dispersed in PLA matrix, they were observed to be well blended with the polymer based on SEM micrographs. In summary, preparation and 3D-printing of a 100% bio-based feedstock material with the mechanical properties comparable to the carbon fiber-ABS system was successfully demonstrated that it can open up new window of opportunities in the additive manufacturing industry. Acknowledgement Research sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Advanced Manufacturing Office, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.},
doi = {10.2172/1364293},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Technical Report:

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  • ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus ® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.
  • Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered an emerging technology that is expected to transform the way industry can make low-volume, high value complex structures. This disruptive technology promises to replace legacy manufacturing methods for the fabrication of existing components in addition to bringing new innovation for new components with increased functional and mechanical properties. This report outlines the outcome of a workshop on large-scale metal additive manufacturing held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on March 11, 2016. The charter for the workshop was outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office program manager. The status and impact ofmore » the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for polymer matrix composites was presented as the background motivation for the workshop. Following, the extension of underlying technology to low-cost metals was proposed with the following goals: (i) High deposition rates (approaching 100 lbs/h); (ii) Low cost (<$10/lbs) for steel, iron, aluminum, nickel, as well as, higher cost titanium, (iii) large components (major axis greater than 6 ft) and (iv) compliance of property requirements. The above concept was discussed in depth by representatives from different industrial sectors including welding, metal fabrication machinery, energy, construction, aerospace and heavy manufacturing. In addition, DOE’s newly launched High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4MFG) program was reviewed. This program will apply thermo-mechanical models to elucidate deeper understanding of the interactions between design, process, and materials during additive manufacturing. Following these presentations, all the attendees took part in a brainstorming session where everyone identified the top 10 challenges in large-scale metal AM from their own perspective. The feedback was analyzed and grouped in different categories including, (i) CAD to PART software, (ii) selection of energy source, (iii) systems development, (iv) material feedstock, (v) process planning, (vi) residual stress & distortion, (vii) post-processing, (viii) qualification of parts, (ix) supply chain and (x) business case. Furthermore, an open innovation network methodology was proposed to accelerate the development and deployment of new large-scale metal additive manufacturing technology with the goal of creating a new generation of high deposition rate equipment, affordable feed stocks, and large metallic components to enhance America’s economic competitiveness.« less
  • The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.
  • Engineers and Researchers at Oak Ridge National Lab s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (ORNL MDF) collaborated with Impossible Objects (IO) in the characterization of PEEK infused carbon fiber mat manufactured by means of CBAM composite-based additive manufacturing, a first generation assembly methodology developed by Robert Swartz, Chairman, Founder, and CTO of Impossible Objects.[1] The first phase of this project focused on demonstration of CBAM for composite tooling. The outlined steps focused on selecting an appropriate shape that fit the current machine s build envelope, characterized the resulting form, and presented next steps for transitioning to a Phase II CRADA agreement. Phasemore » I of collaborative research and development agreement NFE-15-05698 was initiated in April of 2015 with an introduction to Impossible Objects, and concluded in March of 2016 with a visitation to Impossible Objects headquarters in Chicago, IL. Phase II as discussed herein is under consideration by Impossible Objects as of this writing.« less
  • ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.