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Title: Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

Abstract

Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniques to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. In conclusion, material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogenmore » generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [5];  [3];  [7]
  1. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Gif sur Yvette (France)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  4. Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy
  5. Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany)
  6. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
  7. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24); European Union (EU)
OSTI Identifier:
1364282
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 57; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; radiation effects; thermal creep strength; ductility; void swelling; yield strength; fracture toughness; point defect sink strength

Citation Formats

Zinkle, S. J., Boutard, J. L., Hoelzer, D. T., Kimura, A., Lindau, R., Odette, G. R., Rieth, M., Tan, L., and Tanigawa, H. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/57/9/092005.
Zinkle, S. J., Boutard, J. L., Hoelzer, D. T., Kimura, A., Lindau, R., Odette, G. R., Rieth, M., Tan, L., & Tanigawa, H. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications. United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/57/9/092005.
Zinkle, S. J., Boutard, J. L., Hoelzer, D. T., Kimura, A., Lindau, R., Odette, G. R., Rieth, M., Tan, L., and Tanigawa, H. 2017. "Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications". United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/57/9/092005.
@article{osti_1364282,
title = {Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications},
author = {Zinkle, S. J. and Boutard, J. L. and Hoelzer, D. T. and Kimura, A. and Lindau, R. and Odette, G. R. and Rieth, M. and Tan, L. and Tanigawa, H.},
abstractNote = {Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniques to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. In conclusion, material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogen generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/57/9/092005},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
number = 9,
volume = 57,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 6
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on June 9, 2018
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Cited by: 7works
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  • Significant progress has been achieved in the international research effort on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion structural applications. Because this class of steels is the leading structural material for test blankets in ITER and future fusion power systems, the range of ongoing research activities is extremely broad. Since it is not possible to discuss all relevant work in this brief review, the objective of this paper is to highlight significant issues that have received recent attention. These include 1) efforts to measure and understand radiation-induced hardening and embrittlement at temperatures ≤ 400 °C, 2) experiments and modeling to characterizemore » the effects of He on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties, 3) exploration of approaches for increasing the high-temperature (> 550 °C) creep resistance by introduction of a high-density of nanometer scale dispersoids or precipitates in the microstructure, 4) progress toward structural design criteria to account for loading conditions involving both creep and fatigue, and 5) development of nondestructive examination methods for flaw detection and evaluation.« less
  • International development of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steels has focused on 9 wt percentage Cr, which primarily contain M 23C 6 (M = Cr-rich) and small amounts of MX (M = Ta/V, X = C/N) precipitates, not adequate to maintain strength and creep resistance above ~500 °C. To enable applications at higher temperatures for better thermal efficiency of fusion reactors, computational alloy thermodynamics coupled with strength modeling have been employed to explore a new generation RAFM steels. The new alloys are designed to significantly increase the amount of MX nanoprecipitates, which are manufacturable through standard and scalable industrial steelmaking methods.more » Preliminary experimental results of the developed new alloys demonstrated noticeably increased amount of MX, favoring significantly improved strength, creep resistance, and Charpy impact toughness as compared to current RAFM steels. Furthermore, the strength and creep resistance were comparable or approaching to the lower bound of, but impact toughness was noticeably superior to 9–20Cr oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys.« less
  • The status and key issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels R&D are reviewed as the primary candidate structural material for fusion energy demonstration reactor blankets. This includes manufacturing technology, the as-fabricated and irradiates material database and joining technologies. The review indicated that the manufacturing technology, joining technology and database accumulation including irradiation data are ready for initial design activity, and also identifies various issues that remain to be solved for engineering design activity and qualification of the material for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF) irradiation experiments that will validate the data base.