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Title: Performance of a Steel/Oxide Composite Waste Form for Combined Waste Steams from Advanced Electrochemical Processes

Abstract

The results of electrochemical corrosion tests and modeling activities performed collaboratively by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory as part of workpackage NU-13-IL-UIC-0203-02 are summarized herein. The overall objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate testing and modeling approaches that could be used to evaluate the use of composite alloy/ceramic materials as high-level durable waste forms. Several prototypical composite waste form materials were made from stainless steels representing fuel cladding, reagent metals representing metallic fuel waste streams, and reagent oxides representing oxide fuel waste streams to study the microstructures and corrosion behaviors of the oxide and alloy phases. Microelectrodes fabricated from small specimens of the composite materials were used in a series of electrochemical tests to assess the corrosion behaviors of the constituent phases and phase boundaries in an aggressive acid brine solution at various imposed surface potentials. The microstructures were characterized in detail before and after the electrochemical tests to relate the electrochemical responses to changes in both the electrode surface and the solution composition. The results of microscopic, electrochemical, and solution analyses were used to develop equivalent circuit and physical models representing the measured corrosion behaviors of the different materialsmore » pertinent to long-term corrosion behavior. This report provides details regarding (1) the production of the composite materials, (2) the protocol for the electrochemical measurements and interpretations of the responses of multi-phase alloy and oxide composites, (3) relating corrosion behaviors to microstructures of multi-phase alloys based on 316L stainless steel and HT9 (410 stainless steel was used as a substitute) with added Mo, Ni, and/or Mn, and (4) modeling the corrosion behaviors and rates of several alloy/oxide composite materials made with added lanthanide and uranium oxides. These analyses show the corrosion behaviors of the alloy/ceramic composite materials are very similar to the corrosion behaviors of multi-phase alloy waste forms, and that the presence of oxide inclusions does not impact the corrosion behaviors of the alloy phases. Mixing with metallic waste streams is beneficial to lanthanide and uranium oxides in that they react with Zr in the fuel waste to form highly durable zirconates. The measured corrosion behaviors suggest properly formulated composite materials would be suitable waste forms for combined metallic and oxide waste streams generated during electrometallurgical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemical methods are suitable for evaluating the durability and modeling long-term behavior of composite waste forms: the degradation model developed for metallic waste forms can be applied to the alloy phases formed in the composite and an affinity-based mineral dissolution model can be applied to the ceramic phases.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE). Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP)
OSTI Identifier:
1364135
Report Number(s):
DOE/NEUP-13-5059
13-5059; TRN: US1702248
DOE Contract Number:  
NE0000705
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; STAINLESS STEEL-316L; WASTE FORMS; ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION; URANIUM OXIDES; SPENT FUELS; CLADDING

Citation Formats

Indacochea, J. E., Gattu, V. K., Chen, X., and Rahman, T. Performance of a Steel/Oxide Composite Waste Form for Combined Waste Steams from Advanced Electrochemical Processes. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1364135.
Indacochea, J. E., Gattu, V. K., Chen, X., & Rahman, T. Performance of a Steel/Oxide Composite Waste Form for Combined Waste Steams from Advanced Electrochemical Processes. United States. doi:10.2172/1364135.
Indacochea, J. E., Gattu, V. K., Chen, X., and Rahman, T. Thu . "Performance of a Steel/Oxide Composite Waste Form for Combined Waste Steams from Advanced Electrochemical Processes". United States. doi:10.2172/1364135. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1364135.
@article{osti_1364135,
title = {Performance of a Steel/Oxide Composite Waste Form for Combined Waste Steams from Advanced Electrochemical Processes},
author = {Indacochea, J. E. and Gattu, V. K. and Chen, X. and Rahman, T.},
abstractNote = {The results of electrochemical corrosion tests and modeling activities performed collaboratively by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory as part of workpackage NU-13-IL-UIC-0203-02 are summarized herein. The overall objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate testing and modeling approaches that could be used to evaluate the use of composite alloy/ceramic materials as high-level durable waste forms. Several prototypical composite waste form materials were made from stainless steels representing fuel cladding, reagent metals representing metallic fuel waste streams, and reagent oxides representing oxide fuel waste streams to study the microstructures and corrosion behaviors of the oxide and alloy phases. Microelectrodes fabricated from small specimens of the composite materials were used in a series of electrochemical tests to assess the corrosion behaviors of the constituent phases and phase boundaries in an aggressive acid brine solution at various imposed surface potentials. The microstructures were characterized in detail before and after the electrochemical tests to relate the electrochemical responses to changes in both the electrode surface and the solution composition. The results of microscopic, electrochemical, and solution analyses were used to develop equivalent circuit and physical models representing the measured corrosion behaviors of the different materials pertinent to long-term corrosion behavior. This report provides details regarding (1) the production of the composite materials, (2) the protocol for the electrochemical measurements and interpretations of the responses of multi-phase alloy and oxide composites, (3) relating corrosion behaviors to microstructures of multi-phase alloys based on 316L stainless steel and HT9 (410 stainless steel was used as a substitute) with added Mo, Ni, and/or Mn, and (4) modeling the corrosion behaviors and rates of several alloy/oxide composite materials made with added lanthanide and uranium oxides. These analyses show the corrosion behaviors of the alloy/ceramic composite materials are very similar to the corrosion behaviors of multi-phase alloy waste forms, and that the presence of oxide inclusions does not impact the corrosion behaviors of the alloy phases. Mixing with metallic waste streams is beneficial to lanthanide and uranium oxides in that they react with Zr in the fuel waste to form highly durable zirconates. The measured corrosion behaviors suggest properly formulated composite materials would be suitable waste forms for combined metallic and oxide waste streams generated during electrometallurgical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Electrochemical methods are suitable for evaluating the durability and modeling long-term behavior of composite waste forms: the degradation model developed for metallic waste forms can be applied to the alloy phases formed in the composite and an affinity-based mineral dissolution model can be applied to the ceramic phases.},
doi = {10.2172/1364135},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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