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Title: Brine Extraction and Treatment Strategies to Enhance Pressure Management and Control of CO 2 Plumes in Deep Geologic Formations

Abstract

The overall goal of the this project is to develop and validate pressure management and carbon dioxide (CO 2) plume control strategies that can address technical and economic barriers to commercial deployment of CO 2 storage technologies, based on computational and field demonstration work at the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) facility where the Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) and the Illinois-Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (IL-ICCS) projects are located. To accomplish the overall goal, the ISGS designed a brine extraction storage test (BEST) that could be completed in two phases. The goal of BEST Phase I was to evaluate the feasibilities of extraction well(s) placement, the brine extraction to CO 2 injection rate ratio, extraction well completion, and brine treatment and handling. The goal of BEST Phase II would be to validate the brine extraction and treatment options deemed feasible in Phase I by (1) demonstrating the efficacy of brine extraction (BE) in managing pressure (i.e., formation) and the CO 2 plume, and (2) demonstrating treatment of extracted brine with high total dissolved solids (TDS; >200,000 mg/L) using multiple advanced treatment technologies. This report details work done in Phase I. Several brine extraction and treatment scenarios were tested, simulated, andmore » analyzed for their effectiveness in extracting brine. Initially a vertical well was studied; however, geologic modeling, reservoir modeling, and the existing facility and wellbore infrastructure dictated that the location of a vertical brine extraction well was limited to an area with no existing monitoring wells and where the well would be in relative proximity to an existing CO 2 plume. Consequently, a vertical well was excluded, and a horizontal brine extraction well placed above the existing CO 2 plume near two existing wells was studied. The horizontal well option allows the project to leverage the availability of cased-hole logs and cross-well tomography to monitor CO 2 saturation and plume distribution, respectively. Because of the proximity of the horizontal well option to two existing wells, no additional monitoring well (or caprock penetration) is required. The recommended brine extraction pilot design options are (1) a horizontal extraction well at the base of the Middle Mt. Simon, which is 350–520 ft (107–158 m) above the CO 2 plume at CCS#1 and VW#1; or (2) a vertical extraction well 0.5 mi (0.8 km) from CCS#2 in a direction approximately southeast of CCS#2, perpendicular to the direction of high hydraulic connectivity. A horizontal extraction well has advantages over a vertical extraction well, including less risk of drilling into an existing CO 2 plume and it can be located between two other wells that can be used for monitoring. Thus, because the two existing wells can serve as monitoring wells, it eliminates the need for a third verification well and allows for a lower extraction rate to control the CO 2 plume and pressure. Managing pressure and the CO 2 plume distribution via brine extraction creates the obvious and important challenge of handling and treating the extracted brine. There were three options for brine disposal: (1) underground injection control (UIC) disposal well, (2) brine treatment and industrial use, and (3) brine pretreatment and discharge into municipal wastewater system. The primary design elements were budget and permitting requirements. The disposal well would be a vertical well drilled and completed into the Potosi Dolomite. For the range of extraction rates anticipated, the cost of this well is relatively constant. The cost of brine treatment is highly depends on the extraction rate, which depends on the well orientation. If relatively high rates are required, the vertical disposal well option is more favorable; for relatively lower rates, the two brine treatment options have lower costs. Life-cycle-analysis studies on extracted brine handling options suggest that a UIC well has a lower environmental impact than brine treatment. Both brine disposal options using brine treatment require removal of suspended solids from the extracted brine. The most suitable commercially available technology and the most promising emerging and innovative technology are recommended for implementation in Phase II. Though the challenges of this project are written specific to Decatur, every CO 2 storage site considering the use of brine extraction integrated with CO 2 storage will have similar, if not identical, technical and logistical challenges.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States). Prairie Research Inst.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1363792
Report Number(s):
DOE-UOFI-FE0026136
DOE Contract Number:
FE0026136
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Carbon dioxide storage; brine extraction; pressure management; geologic formations

Citation Formats

Okwen, Roland, Frailey, Scott, and Dastgheib, Seyed. Brine Extraction and Treatment Strategies to Enhance Pressure Management and Control of CO2 Plumes in Deep Geologic Formations. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1363792.
Okwen, Roland, Frailey, Scott, & Dastgheib, Seyed. Brine Extraction and Treatment Strategies to Enhance Pressure Management and Control of CO2 Plumes in Deep Geologic Formations. United States. doi:10.2172/1363792.
Okwen, Roland, Frailey, Scott, and Dastgheib, Seyed. Wed . "Brine Extraction and Treatment Strategies to Enhance Pressure Management and Control of CO2 Plumes in Deep Geologic Formations". United States. doi:10.2172/1363792. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1363792.
@article{osti_1363792,
title = {Brine Extraction and Treatment Strategies to Enhance Pressure Management and Control of CO2 Plumes in Deep Geologic Formations},
author = {Okwen, Roland and Frailey, Scott and Dastgheib, Seyed},
abstractNote = {The overall goal of the this project is to develop and validate pressure management and carbon dioxide (CO2) plume control strategies that can address technical and economic barriers to commercial deployment of CO2 storage technologies, based on computational and field demonstration work at the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) facility where the Illinois Basin–Decatur Project (IBDP) and the Illinois-Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (IL-ICCS) projects are located. To accomplish the overall goal, the ISGS designed a brine extraction storage test (BEST) that could be completed in two phases. The goal of BEST Phase I was to evaluate the feasibilities of extraction well(s) placement, the brine extraction to CO2 injection rate ratio, extraction well completion, and brine treatment and handling. The goal of BEST Phase II would be to validate the brine extraction and treatment options deemed feasible in Phase I by (1) demonstrating the efficacy of brine extraction (BE) in managing pressure (i.e., formation) and the CO2 plume, and (2) demonstrating treatment of extracted brine with high total dissolved solids (TDS; >200,000 mg/L) using multiple advanced treatment technologies. This report details work done in Phase I. Several brine extraction and treatment scenarios were tested, simulated, and analyzed for their effectiveness in extracting brine. Initially a vertical well was studied; however, geologic modeling, reservoir modeling, and the existing facility and wellbore infrastructure dictated that the location of a vertical brine extraction well was limited to an area with no existing monitoring wells and where the well would be in relative proximity to an existing CO2 plume. Consequently, a vertical well was excluded, and a horizontal brine extraction well placed above the existing CO2 plume near two existing wells was studied. The horizontal well option allows the project to leverage the availability of cased-hole logs and cross-well tomography to monitor CO2 saturation and plume distribution, respectively. Because of the proximity of the horizontal well option to two existing wells, no additional monitoring well (or caprock penetration) is required. The recommended brine extraction pilot design options are (1) a horizontal extraction well at the base of the Middle Mt. Simon, which is 350–520 ft (107–158 m) above the CO2 plume at CCS#1 and VW#1; or (2) a vertical extraction well 0.5 mi (0.8 km) from CCS#2 in a direction approximately southeast of CCS#2, perpendicular to the direction of high hydraulic connectivity. A horizontal extraction well has advantages over a vertical extraction well, including less risk of drilling into an existing CO2 plume and it can be located between two other wells that can be used for monitoring. Thus, because the two existing wells can serve as monitoring wells, it eliminates the need for a third verification well and allows for a lower extraction rate to control the CO2 plume and pressure. Managing pressure and the CO2 plume distribution via brine extraction creates the obvious and important challenge of handling and treating the extracted brine. There were three options for brine disposal: (1) underground injection control (UIC) disposal well, (2) brine treatment and industrial use, and (3) brine pretreatment and discharge into municipal wastewater system. The primary design elements were budget and permitting requirements. The disposal well would be a vertical well drilled and completed into the Potosi Dolomite. For the range of extraction rates anticipated, the cost of this well is relatively constant. The cost of brine treatment is highly depends on the extraction rate, which depends on the well orientation. If relatively high rates are required, the vertical disposal well option is more favorable; for relatively lower rates, the two brine treatment options have lower costs. Life-cycle-analysis studies on extracted brine handling options suggest that a UIC well has a lower environmental impact than brine treatment. Both brine disposal options using brine treatment require removal of suspended solids from the extracted brine. The most suitable commercially available technology and the most promising emerging and innovative technology are recommended for implementation in Phase II. Though the challenges of this project are written specific to Decatur, every CO2 storage site considering the use of brine extraction integrated with CO2 storage will have similar, if not identical, technical and logistical challenges.},
doi = {10.2172/1363792},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 14 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Jun 14 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • This study uses modeling and simulation approaches to investigate the impacts on injectivity of trace amounts of mercury (Hg) in a carbon dioxide (CO 2) stream injected for geologic carbon sequestration in a sandstone reservoir at ~2.5 km depth. At the range of Hg concentrations expected (7-190 ppbV, or ~ 0.06-1.6 mg/std.m 3CO 2), the total volumetric plugging that could occur due to complete condensation of Hg, or due to complete precipitation of Hg as cinnabar, results in a very small porosity change. In addition, Hg concentration much higher than the concentrations considered here would be required for Hg condensationmore » to even occur. Concentration of aqueous Hg by water evaporation into CO 2 is also unlikely because the higher volatility of Hg relative to H 2O at reservoir conditions prevents the Hg concentration from increasing in groundwater as dry CO 2 sweeps through, volatilizing both H 2O and Hg. Using a model-derived aqueous solution to represent the formation water, batch reactive geochemical modeling show that the reaction of the formation water with the CO 2-Hg mixture causes the pH to drop to about 4.7 and then become buffered near 5.2 upon reaction with the sediments, with a negligible net volume change from mineral dissolution and precipitation. Cinnabar (HgS(s)) is found to be thermodynamically stable as soon as the Hg-bearing CO 2 reacts with the formation water which contains small amounts of dissolved sulfide. Liquid mercury (Hg(l)) is not found to be thermodynamically stable at any point during the simulation. Two-dimensional radial reactive transport simulations of CO 2 injection at a rate of 14.8 kg/s into a 400 m-thick formation at isothermal conditions of 106°C and average pressure near 215 bar, with varying amounts of Hg and H 2S trace gases, show generally that porosity changes only by about ±0.05% (absolute, i.e., new porosity = initial porosity ±0.0005) with Hg predicted to readily precipitate from the CO 2 as cinnabar in a zone mostly matching the single-phase CO 2 plume. The precipitation of minerals other than cinnabar, however, dominates the evolution of porosity. Main reactions include the replacement of primarily Fe-chlorite by siderite, of calcite by dolomite, and of K-feldspar by muscovite. Chalcedony is also predicted to precipitate from the dissolution of feldspars and quartz. Although the range of predicted porosity change is quite small, the amount of dissolution and precipitation predicted for these individual minerals is not negligible. These reactive transport simulations assume that Hg gas behaves ideally. To examine effects of non-ideality on these simulations, approximate calculations of the fugacity coefficient of Hg in CO 2 were made. Results suggest that Hg condensation could be significantly overestimated when assuming ideal gas behavior, making our simulation results conservative with respect to impacts on injectivity. The effect of pressure on Henry’s constant for Hg is estimated to yield Hg solubilities about 10% lower than when this effect is not considered, a change that is considered too small to affect the conclusions of this report. Although all results in this study are based on relatively mature data and modeling approaches, in the absence of experimental data and more detailed site-specific information, it is not possible to fully validate the results and conclusions.« less
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