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Title: A stellar overdensity associated with the Small Magellanic Cloud

Abstract

Here, we report the discovery of a stellar overdensity 8° north of the centre of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC; Small Magellanic Cloud Northern Over-Density; SMCNOD), using data from the first 2 yr of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the first year of the MAGellanic SatelLITEs Survey (MagLiteS). The SMCNOD is indistinguishable in age, metallicity and distance from the nearby SMC stars, being primarily composed of intermediate-age stars (6 Gyr, Z = 0.001), with a small fraction of young stars (1 Gyr, Z = 0.01). The SMCNOD has an elongated shape with an ellipticity of 0.6 and a size of ~6° × 2°. It has an absolute magnitude of MV ≅ –7.7, rh = 2.1 kpc, and μV(r < rh) = 31.2 mag arcsec –2. We estimate a stellar mass of ~10 5 M⊙, following a Kroupa mass function. The SMCNOD was probably removed from the SMC disc by tidal stripping, since it is located near the head of the Magellanic Stream, and the literature indicates likely recent Large Magellanic Cloud-SMC encounters. This scenario is supported by the lack of significant H i gas. Other potential scenarios for the SMCNOD origin are a transient overdensity within the SMC tidalmore » radius or a primordial SMC satellite in advanced stage of disruption.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [2];  [14];  [1];  [15];  [16];  [11] more »;  [17];  [18];  [18];  [19];  [19];  [19];  [20];  [16];  [21];  [2];  [2];  [22];  [19];  [23];  [24];  [25];  [26];  [27];  [2];  [28];  [2];  [29];  [30];  [31];  [23];  [19];  [2];  [32];  [33];  [34];  [2];  [23];  [35];  [36];  [37];  [38];  [39];  [2];  [40];  [39];  [16];  [2];  [41];  [42];  [43];  [40];  [2];  [2] « less
  1. Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  2. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  3. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  4. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  5. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  6. Univ. de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany)
  7. Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
  8. Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Canary Islands (Spain); Univ. of La Laguna, Canary Islands (Spain)
  9. Zentrum fur Astronomie der Univ. Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)
  10. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
  11. Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)
  12. Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)
  13. Univ. of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom); Leibnitz-Institut fur Astrophysik Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)
  14. ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)
  15. Mount Stromlo Observatory, Weston Creek, ACT (Australia)
  16. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  17. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  18. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  19. Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  20. Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  21. Rhodes Univ., Grahamstown (South Africa); Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom)
  22. Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Paris (France); Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France)
  23. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Urbana, IL (United States)
  24. Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Barcelona (Spain); Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)
  25. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  26. Univ. of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)
  27. IIT Hyderabad, Telangana (India)
  28. Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom)
  29. Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Barcelona (Spain)
  30. Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)
  31. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  32. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
  33. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  34. Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)
  35. Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain); The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)
  36. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  37. Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)
  38. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  39. Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)
  40. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  41. Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Univ. Federal do ABC, Santo Andre (Brazil)
  42. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  43. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Urbana, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
DES; DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1362063
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1352816; OSTI ID: 1367848
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1612.03938; FERMILAB-PUB-16-689-AE-CD
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; TRN: US1700674
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-07CH11359; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 468; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: interactions; Magellanic Clouds; Galaxies; Magellanic clouds

Citation Formats

Pieres, Adriano, Santiago, Basilio X., Drlica-Wagner, A., Bechtol, K., Marel, R. P. van der, Besla, G., Martin, N. F., Belokurov, V., Gallart, C., Martinez-Delgado, D., Marshall, J., Nöel, N. E. D., Majewski, S. R., Cioni, M. -R. L., Li, T. S., Hartley, W., Luque, E., Conn, B. C., Walker, A. R., Balbinot, E., Stringfellow, G. S., Olsen, K. A. G., Nidever, D., da Costa, L. N., Ogando, R., Maia, M., Neto, A. Fausti, Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Annis, J., Benoit-Lévy, A., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Cunha, C. E., D'Andrea, C. B., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., García-Bellido, J., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sako, M., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, Eric, Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Tucker, D. L., and Wester, W. A stellar overdensity associated with the Small Magellanic Cloud. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx507.
Pieres, Adriano, Santiago, Basilio X., Drlica-Wagner, A., Bechtol, K., Marel, R. P. van der, Besla, G., Martin, N. F., Belokurov, V., Gallart, C., Martinez-Delgado, D., Marshall, J., Nöel, N. E. D., Majewski, S. R., Cioni, M. -R. L., Li, T. S., Hartley, W., Luque, E., Conn, B. C., Walker, A. R., Balbinot, E., Stringfellow, G. S., Olsen, K. A. G., Nidever, D., da Costa, L. N., Ogando, R., Maia, M., Neto, A. Fausti, Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Annis, J., Benoit-Lévy, A., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Cunha, C. E., D'Andrea, C. B., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., García-Bellido, J., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sako, M., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, Eric, Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Tucker, D. L., & Wester, W. A stellar overdensity associated with the Small Magellanic Cloud. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx507.
Pieres, Adriano, Santiago, Basilio X., Drlica-Wagner, A., Bechtol, K., Marel, R. P. van der, Besla, G., Martin, N. F., Belokurov, V., Gallart, C., Martinez-Delgado, D., Marshall, J., Nöel, N. E. D., Majewski, S. R., Cioni, M. -R. L., Li, T. S., Hartley, W., Luque, E., Conn, B. C., Walker, A. R., Balbinot, E., Stringfellow, G. S., Olsen, K. A. G., Nidever, D., da Costa, L. N., Ogando, R., Maia, M., Neto, A. Fausti, Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Annis, J., Benoit-Lévy, A., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Cunha, C. E., D'Andrea, C. B., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., García-Bellido, J., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sako, M., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, Eric, Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Tucker, D. L., and Wester, W. Tue . "A stellar overdensity associated with the Small Magellanic Cloud". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx507. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1362063.
@article{osti_1362063,
title = {A stellar overdensity associated with the Small Magellanic Cloud},
author = {Pieres, Adriano and Santiago, Basilio X. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Bechtol, K. and Marel, R. P. van der and Besla, G. and Martin, N. F. and Belokurov, V. and Gallart, C. and Martinez-Delgado, D. and Marshall, J. and Nöel, N. E. D. and Majewski, S. R. and Cioni, M. -R. L. and Li, T. S. and Hartley, W. and Luque, E. and Conn, B. C. and Walker, A. R. and Balbinot, E. and Stringfellow, G. S. and Olsen, K. A. G. and Nidever, D. and da Costa, L. N. and Ogando, R. and Maia, M. and Neto, A. Fausti and Abbott, T. M. C. and Abdalla, F. B. and Allam, S. and Annis, J. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Kind, M. Carrasco and Carretero, J. and Cunha, C. E. and D'Andrea, C. B. and Desai, S. and Diehl, H. T. and Doel, P. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and García-Bellido, J. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Honscheid, K. and James, D. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Menanteau, F. and Miquel, R. and Plazas, A. A. and Romer, A. K. and Sako, M. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schubnell, M. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, R. C. and Soares-Santos, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, Eric and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Tucker, D. L. and Wester, W.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report the discovery of a stellar overdensity 8° north of the centre of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC; Small Magellanic Cloud Northern Over-Density; SMCNOD), using data from the first 2 yr of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the first year of the MAGellanic SatelLITEs Survey (MagLiteS). The SMCNOD is indistinguishable in age, metallicity and distance from the nearby SMC stars, being primarily composed of intermediate-age stars (6 Gyr, Z = 0.001), with a small fraction of young stars (1 Gyr, Z = 0.01). The SMCNOD has an elongated shape with an ellipticity of 0.6 and a size of ~6° × 2°. It has an absolute magnitude of MV ≅ –7.7, rh = 2.1 kpc, and μV(r < rh) = 31.2 mag arcsec–2. We estimate a stellar mass of ~105 M⊙, following a Kroupa mass function. The SMCNOD was probably removed from the SMC disc by tidal stripping, since it is located near the head of the Magellanic Stream, and the literature indicates likely recent Large Magellanic Cloud-SMC encounters. This scenario is supported by the lack of significant H i gas. Other potential scenarios for the SMCNOD origin are a transient overdensity within the SMC tidal radius or a primordial SMC satellite in advanced stage of disruption.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stx507},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 2,
volume = 468,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Feb 28 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Feb 28 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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  • Here, we report the discovery of a stellar overdensity 8° north of the centre of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC; Small Magellanic Cloud Northern Over-Density; SMCNOD), using data from the first 2 yr of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the first year of the MAGellanic SatelLITEs Survey (MagLiteS). The SMCNOD is indistinguishable in age, metallicity and distance from the nearby SMC stars, being primarily composed of intermediate-age stars (6 Gyr, Z = 0.001), with a small fraction of young stars (1 Gyr, Z = 0.01). The SMCNOD has an elongated shape with an ellipticity of 0.6 and a sizemore » of ~6° × 2°. It has an absolute magnitude of MV ≅ –7.7, rh = 2.1 kpc, and μV(r < rh) = 31.2 mag arcsec –2. We estimate a stellar mass of ~10 5 M⊙, following a Kroupa mass function. The SMCNOD was probably removed from the SMC disc by tidal stripping, since it is located near the head of the Magellanic Stream, and the literature indicates likely recent Large Magellanic Cloud-SMC encounters. This scenario is supported by the lack of significant H i gas. Other potential scenarios for the SMCNOD origin are a transient overdensity within the SMC tidal radius or a primordial SMC satellite in advanced stage of disruption.« less
  • We report the discovery of a stellar over-density 8° north of the center of the Small Magellanic Cloud (Small Magellanic Cloud Northern Over-Density; SMCNOD) using data from the rst two years of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the rst year of the MAGellanic SatelLITEs Survey (MagLiteS). The SMCNOD is indistinguishable in age, metallicity and distance from the nearby SMC stars, being primarly composed of intermediate-age stars (6 Gyr, Z=0.001), with a small fraction of young stars (1 Gyr, Z=0.01). The SMCNOD has an absolute magnitude of M V ≃ -7.7, rh = 2:1 kpc, and μV (r < rh)more » = 31.2 mag arcsec -2. We estimate a stellar mass of ~7 X 10 5 M . The SMCNOD was probably removed from the SMC disk by tidal stripping, since it is located near the Magellanic Stream trail, and the literature indicates likely recent LMC-SMC encounters. This scenario is supported by the lack of signi cant HI gas. Other potential scenarios for the SMCNOD origin are a transient over-density within the SMC tidal radius or a primordial SMC satellite in advanced stage of disruption.« less
  • According to the predictions of line-driven stellar wind theory, the mass loss from luminous stars should be proportional to some power of the metallicity, yet previous studies have not shown this effect clearly. The authors have observed 22 main-sequence and giant O-type stars n the SMC with the low-resolution mode of the IUE in order to study the stellar winds in a particularly metal-poor galaxy. These stars are compared with carefully selected Galactic counterparts for wind terminal velocities and line strengths of C IV and N v. While the wind velocities in the SMC stars are confirmed to be systematicallymore » lower than in Galactic stars, as theory predicts, the mass-loss rates which are inferred from these data are comparable to those in the Galactic stars. The possible reasons for this result are discussed, including systematic effects in the data, assumed metal abundance, different ionization structure, and different physical parameters for the SMC stars. 32 references.« less
  • Technological advances make it now possible to conduct CCD photometry studies of stars in the halo of the Magellanic Clouds, taking into account the age and chemical composition of the oldest stars, the star-formation rate, and the age-metallicity relations. Recent reserch demonstrates that these relationships are different in the Clouds and in the Galaxy. The present paper is concerned with an examination of the giant stars of the SMC halo in the vicinity of the SMC cluster NGC 121, giving attention to the chemical composition and radial velocity of these objects. Astrometry and photometry based on direct photographs are consideredmore » along with spectroscopic observations, taking into account reduction techniques, sample spectra, radial velocities, and spectrophotometric indices and metallicity spread of giants. 69 references.« less
  • We perform near ultraviolet ACS prism spectroscopy of 11 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) planetary nebulae (PNe) with the main aim of deriving the abundance of carbon. The analysis of the ACS spectra provides reliable atomic carbon abundances for all but a couple of our targets; ionic C{sup 2+} abundances are calculated for all target PNe. With the present paper we more than double the number of SMC PNe with known carbon abundances, providing a good database to study the elemental evolution in low- and intermediate-mass stars at low metallicity. We study carbon abundances of Magellanic Cloud PNe in the frameworkmore » of stellar evolution models and the elemental yields. Constraining SMC and LMC stellar evolutionary models is now possible with the present data, through the comparison of the final yields calculated and the CNO abundances observed. We found that SMC PNe are almost exclusively carbon rich, and that for the most part they have not undergone the hot bottom burning phase, contrary to about half of the studied LMC PNe. The yields from stellar evolutionary models with LMC and SMC metallicities broadly agree with the observations. In particular, evolutionary yields for M {sub to} < 3.5 M {sub sun} well encompass the abundances of round and elliptical PNe in the SMC. We found that the carbon emission lines are major coolants for SMC PNe, more so than in their LMC counterparts, indicating that metallicity has an effect on the physics of PNe, as predicted by Stanghellini et al.« less