skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Event Patterns Extracted from Transverse Momentum and Rapidity Spectra of Z Bosons and Quarkonium States Produced in pp and Pb-Pb Collisions at LHC

Abstract

Transverse momentum ( p T ) and rapidity ( y ) spectra of Z bosons and quarkonium states (some charmonium c c ¯ mesons such as J / ψ and ψ ( 2 S ) and some bottomonium b b ¯ mesons such as Υ ( 1 S ) , Υ ( 2 S ) , and Υ ( 3 S ) ) produced in proton-proton (pp) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at the large hadron collider (LHC) are uniformly described by a hybrid model of two-component Erlang distribution for p T spectrum and two-component Gaussian distribution for y spectrum. The former distribution results from a multisource thermal model, and the latter one results from the revised Landau hydrodynamic model. The modelling results are in agreement with the experimental data measured in pp collisions at center-of-mass energies s = 2.76 and 7 TeV and in Pb-Pb collisions at center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair s N N = 2.76 TeV. Based on the parameter values extracted from p T and y spectra, the event patterns (particle scatter plots) in two-dimensional p T - y space and in three-dimensional velocity space are obtained.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Shanxi Univ., Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Theoretical Physics
  2. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Shanxi Univ., Taiyuan (China)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC)
OSTI Identifier:
1362011
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-87ER40331; 11575103
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advances in High Energy Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2016; Journal ID: ISSN 1687-7357
Publisher:
Hindawi
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Chen, Ya-Hui, Liu, Fu-Hu, and Lacey, Roy A. Event Patterns Extracted from Transverse Momentum and Rapidity Spectra of Z Bosons and Quarkonium States Produced in pp and Pb-Pb Collisions at LHC. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1155/2016/9876253.
Chen, Ya-Hui, Liu, Fu-Hu, & Lacey, Roy A. Event Patterns Extracted from Transverse Momentum and Rapidity Spectra of Z Bosons and Quarkonium States Produced in pp and Pb-Pb Collisions at LHC. United States. doi:10.1155/2016/9876253.
Chen, Ya-Hui, Liu, Fu-Hu, and Lacey, Roy A. Sat . "Event Patterns Extracted from Transverse Momentum and Rapidity Spectra of Z Bosons and Quarkonium States Produced in pp and Pb-Pb Collisions at LHC". United States. doi:10.1155/2016/9876253. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1362011.
@article{osti_1362011,
title = {Event Patterns Extracted from Transverse Momentum and Rapidity Spectra of Z Bosons and Quarkonium States Produced in pp and Pb-Pb Collisions at LHC},
author = {Chen, Ya-Hui and Liu, Fu-Hu and Lacey, Roy A.},
abstractNote = {Transverse momentum (pT) and rapidity (y) spectra of Z bosons and quarkonium states (some charmonium cc¯ mesons such as J/ψ and ψ(2S) and some bottomonium bb¯ mesons such asΥ(1S),Υ(2S), andΥ(3S)) produced in proton-proton (pp) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions at the large hadron collider (LHC) are uniformly described by a hybrid model of two-component Erlang distribution for pT spectrum and two-component Gaussian distribution for y spectrum. The former distribution results from a multisource thermal model, and the latter one results from the revised Landau hydrodynamic model. The modelling results are in agreement with the experimental data measured in pp collisions at center-of-mass energies s=2.76 and 7 TeV and in Pb-Pb collisions at center-of-mass energy per nucleon pairsNN=2.76 TeV. Based on the parameter values extracted from pT and y spectra, the event patterns (particle scatter plots) in two-dimensional pT-y space and in three-dimensional velocity space are obtained.},
doi = {10.1155/2016/9876253},
journal = {Advances in High Energy Physics},
issn = {1687-7357},
number = ,
volume = 2016,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

K ( 892 ) * resonance production in Au+Au and p + p collisions at s NN = 200 GeV
journal, June 2005


Quark–gluon plasma and color glass condensate at RHIC? The perspective from the BRAHMS experiment
journal, August 2005


The PHOBOS perspective on discoveries at RHIC
journal, August 2005


Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead–lead collisions at <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:msub><mml:mrow><mml:mi>s</mml:mi></mml:mrow><mml:mrow><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">NN</mml:mi></mml:mrow></mml:msub></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>2.76</mml:mn><mml:mtext> TeV</mml:mtext></mml:math> with the ATLAS detector
journal, April 2012


Absolute luminosity measurements with the LHCb detector at the LHC
journal, January 2012


Freeze-Out Parameters in Heavy-Ion Collisions at AGS, SPS, RHIC, and LHC Energies
journal, January 2015

  • Chatterjee, Sandeep; Das, Sabita; Kumar, Lokesh
  • Advances in High Energy Physics, Vol. 2015
  • DOI: 10.1155/2015/349013

Hypothesis concerning quark stars
journal, January 1967

  • Ivanenko, D. D.; Kurdgelaidze, D. F.
  • Astrophysics, Vol. 1, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1007/bf01042830

Hydrostatic Equilibrium of Hypothetical Quark Stars
journal, July 1970


Vacuum stability and vacuum excitation in a spin-0 field theory
journal, April 1974


On Productions of Net-Baryons in Central Au-Au Collisions at RHIC Energies
journal, January 2015

  • Chen, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Liu, Fu-Hu
  • Advances in High Energy Physics, Vol. 2015
  • DOI: 10.1155/2015/614090

Transverse mass and rapidity distributions and space dispersion plots of (net-)protons in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS energies
journal, March 2014


Unified description of transverse momentum spectrums contributed by soft and hard processes in high-energy nuclear collisions
journal, June 2014


Bulk Dynamics in Heavy Ion Collisions
journal, April 2005


Rapidity and Angular Distributions of Charged Secondaries According to the Hydrodynamical Model of Particle Production
journal, August 1973


Heretical Models of Particle Production
journal, May 1974


<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2011-01-01">January 2011</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Gazdzicki, M.; Gorenstein, M.; Seyboth, P.</span> </li> <li> Acta Physica Polonica B, Vol. 42, Issue 2</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.5506/aphyspolb.42.307" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.5506/aphyspolb.42.307<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/jhep03(2015)022" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Study of Z production in PbPb and pp collisions at s N N = 2.76 $$ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 $$ TeV in the dimuon and dielectron decay channels<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2015-03-01">March 2015</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.</span> </li> <li> Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2015, Issue 3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/jhep03(2015)022" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1007/jhep03(2015)022<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2011.02.006" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Measurement of the centrality dependence of <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:mi>J</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">/</mml:mo><mml:mi>ψ</mml:mi></mml:math> yields and observation of Z production in lead–lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2011-03-01">March 2011</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.</span> </li> <li> Physics Letters B, Vol. 697, Issue 4</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2011.02.006" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.physletb.2011.02.006<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2011.09.054" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Rapidity and transverse momentum dependence of inclusive <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">J</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">/</mml:mo><mml:mi>ψ</mml:mi></mml:math> production in pp collisions at <mml:math altimg="si2.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:mi>s</mml:mi></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>7</mml:mn><mml:mtext> TeV</mml:mtext></mml:math><span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2011-10-01">October 2011</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Aamodt, K.; Abrahantes Quintana, A.; Adamová, D.</span> </li> <li> Physics Letters B, Vol. 704, Issue 5</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2011.09.054" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.physletb.2011.09.054<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2012.10.060" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Erratum to “Rapidity and transverse momentum dependence of inclusive <math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll"> <mi mathvariant="normal">J</mi> <mo stretchy="false">/</mo> <mi>ψ</mi> </math> production in pp collisions at <math altimg="si2.gif" overflow="scroll"> <msqrt> <mi>s</mi> </msqrt> <mo>=</mo> <mn>7</mn> <mtext>TeV</mtext> </math> ” [Phys. Lett. B 704 (5) (2011) 442]<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2012-12-01">December 2012</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Aamodt, K.; Abrahantes Quintana, A.; Adamová, D.</span> </li> <li> Physics Letters B, Vol. 718, Issue 2</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2012.10.060" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.physletb.2012.10.060<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2013.10.033" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Measurement of the <mml:math altimg="si1.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd"><mml:mi>ϒ</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">(</mml:mo><mml:mn>1</mml:mn><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">S</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">)</mml:mo></mml:math>, <mml:math altimg="si2.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd"><mml:mi>ϒ</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">(</mml:mo><mml:mn>2</mml:mn><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">S</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">)</mml:mo></mml:math>, and <mml:math altimg="si3.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd"><mml:mi>ϒ</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">(</mml:mo><mml:mn>3</mml:mn><mml:mi mathvariant="normal">S</mml:mi><mml:mo stretchy="false">)</mml:mo></mml:math> cross sections in pp collisions at <mml:math altimg="si4.gif" overflow="scroll" xmlns:xocs="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/xocs/dtd" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:ja="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/ja/dtd" xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:tb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/table/dtd" xmlns:sb="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-bib/dtd" xmlns:ce="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/dtd" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:cals="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/cals/dtd" xmlns:sa="http://www.elsevier.com/xml/common/struct-aff/dtd"><mml:msqrt><mml:mi>s</mml:mi></mml:msqrt><mml:mo>=</mml:mo><mml:mn>7</mml:mn><mml:mtext> </mml:mtext><mml:mtext>TeV</mml:mtext></mml:math><span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2013-11-01">November 2013</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.</span> </li> <li> Physics Letters B, Vol. 727, Issue 1-3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2013.10.033" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/j.physletb.2013.10.033<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/jhep05(2016)179" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Differential studies of inclusive J/ψ and ψ(2S) production at forward rapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at s N N = 2.76 $$ \sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 $$ TeV<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2016-05-01">May 2016</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.</span> </li> <li> Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2016, Issue 5</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/jhep05(2016)179" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1007/jhep05(2016)179<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9002(94)01112-5" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Where to stick your data points: The treatment of measurements within wide bins<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="1995-02-01">February 1995</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Lafferty, G. D.; Wyatt, T. R.</span> </li> <li> Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 355, Issue 2-3</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-9002(94)01112-5" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1016/0168-9002(94)01112-5<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All References</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-tab="biblio-references" data-filter="type" data-pattern="journal"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> journal<small class="text-muted"> (26)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted reference-search"> <label for="reference-search-text" class="sr-only">Search</label> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" id="reference-search-text" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <fieldset> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="reference-search-sort-name"><label for="reference-search-sort-name" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by title</label></div> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="date" data-order="desc" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="reference-search-sort-date"><label for="reference-search-sort-date" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by date</label></div> </fieldset> <div class="text-left" style="margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-citations" class="tab-content tab-content-sec osti-curated" data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Works referencing / citing this record:</p> <div class="list"> <div> <h2 class="title" style="margin-bottom:0;" data-apporder=""> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6471/aa51f1" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="name">Event patterns (particle scatter plots) extracted from charged particle spectra in <em>pp</em> and Pb–Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase; font-size:0.75rem;"><br/> <span class="type">journal</span>, <span class="date" data-date="2017-01-11">January 2017</span></small> </h2> <ul class="small references-list" style="list-style-type:none; margin-top: 0.5em; padding-left: 0; line-height:1.8em;"> <li> <span style="color:#7cb342;"> Chen, Ya-Hui; Liu, Fu-Hu; Fakhraddin, Sakina</span> </li> <li> Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol. 44, Issue 2</li> <li> <span class="text-muted related-url">DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6471/aa51f1" class="text-muted" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">10.1088/1361-6471/aa51f1<span class="fa fa-external-link" aria-hidden="true"></span></a></span> </li> </ul> <hr/> </div> </div> <div class="pagination-container small"> <a class="pure-button prev page" href="#" rel="prev"><span class="fa fa-angle-left"></span></a><ul class="pagination d-inline-block" style="padding-left:.2em;"></ul><a class="pure-button next page" href="#" rel="next"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span></a> </div> </div> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="*"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> All Cited By</a></li> <li class="small" style="margin-left:.75em; text-transform:capitalize;"><a href="" class="reference-type-filter tab-nav" data-filter="type" data-pattern="journal"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> journal<small class="text-muted"> (1)</small></a></li> </ul> <div style="margin-top:2em;"> <form class="pure-form small text-muted citation-search"> <label for="citation-search-text" class="sr-only">Search</label> <input class="search form-control pure-input-1" id="citation-search-text" placeholder="Search" style="margin-bottom:10px;" /> <fieldset> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="name" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="citation-search-sort-name"><label for="citation-search-sort-name" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by title</label></div> <div style="margin-left:1em; font-weight:normal; line-height: 1.6em;"><input type="radio" class="sort" name="references-sort" data-sort="date" data-order="desc" style="position:relative;top:2px;" id="citation-search-sort-date"><label for="citation-search-sort-date" style="margin-left: .3em;">Sort by date</label></div> </fieldset> <div class="text-left" style="margin-left:1em;"> <a href="" class="filter-clear clearfix" title="Clear filter / sort" style="font-weight:normal; float:none;">[ × clear filter / sort ]</a> </div> </form> </div> </div> </div> </section> <section id="biblio-related" class="tab-content tab-content-sec " data-tab="biblio"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-9 order-sm-9"> <section id="biblio-similar" class="tab-content tab-content-sec active" data-tab="related"> <div class="padding"> <p class="lead text-muted" style="font-size: 18px; margin-top:0px;">Similar records in OSTI.GOV collections:</p> <aside> <ul class="item-list" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ItemList" style="padding-left:0; list-style-type: none;"> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="0" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1437810-production-he-pbpb-collisions-nn-tev-lhc" itemprop="url">Production of 4He and 4 <math> <mover> <mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> He </mi> </mrow> </mrow> <mo> ‾ </mo> </mover> </math> in Pb–Pb collisions at <math> <msqrt> <mrow> <msub> <mrow> <mi> s </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> NN </mi> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 2.76 </mn> <mspace></mspace> <mtext> TeV </mtext> </math> at the LHC</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Acharya, S.</span> ; <span class="author">Adamová, D.</span> ; <span class="author">Adolfsson, J.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Nuclear Physics. A</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Resul<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> ts on the production of <sup>4</sup>He and <math> <mmultiscripts> <mrow> <mover> <mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> He </mi> </mrow> </mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mover> </mrow> <mprescripts></mprescripts> <mrow> <mn> 4 </mn> </mrow> </mmultiscripts> </math> nuclei in Pb–Pb collisions at <math> <msqrt> <mrow> <msub> <mrow> <mi> s </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> NN </mi> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 2.76 </mn> <mspace></mspace> <mtext> TeV </mtext> </math> in the rapidity range <math> <mo> | </mo> <mi> y </mi> <mo> | </mo> <mo> < </mo> <mn> 1 </mn> </math>, using the ALICE detector, are presented in this paper. The rapidity densities corresponding to 0–10% central events are found to be <math> <mi mathvariant="normal"> d </mi> <mi> N </mi> <mo> / </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> d </mi> <msub> <mrow> <mi> y </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mmultiscripts> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> He </mi> </mrow> <mprescripts></mprescripts> <mrow> <mn> 4 </mn> </mrow> </mmultiscripts> </mrow> </msub> <mo> = </mo> <mo> ( </mo> <mn> 0.8 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.4 </mn> <mspace></mspace> <mo> ( </mo> <mtext> stat </mtext> <mo> ) </mo> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.3 </mn> <mspace></mspace> <mo> ( </mo> <mtext> syst </mtext> <mo> ) </mo> <mo> ) </mo> <mo> × </mo> <msup> <mrow> <mn> 10 </mn> </mrow> <mrow> <mo> - </mo> <mn> 6 </mn> </mrow> </msup> </math> and <math> <mi mathvariant="normal"> d </mi> <mi> N </mi> <mo> / </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> d </mi> <msub> <mrow> <mi> y </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mmultiscripts> <mrow> <mover> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> He </mi> </mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mover> </mrow> <mprescripts></mprescripts> <mrow> <mn> 4 </mn> </mrow> </mmultiscripts> </mrow> </msub> <mo> = </mo> <mo> ( </mo> <mn> 1.1 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.4 </mn> <mspace></mspace> <mo> ( </mo> <mtext> stat </mtext> <mo> ) </mo> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.2 </mn> <mspace></mspace> <mo> ( </mo> <mtext> syst </mtext> <mo> ) </mo> <mo> ) </mo> <mo> × </mo> <msup> <mrow> <mn> 10 </mn> </mrow> <mrow> <mo> - </mo> <mn> 6 </mn> </mrow> </msup> </math>, respectively. This is in agreement with the statistical thermal model expectation assuming the same chemical freeze-out temperature ( <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> T </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> chem </mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 156 </mn> <mspace></mspace> <mtext> MeV </mtext> </math>) as for light hadrons. The measured ratio of <math> <mmultiscripts> <mrow> <mover> <mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> He </mi> </mrow> </mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mover> </mrow> <mprescripts></mprescripts> <mrow> <mn> 4 </mn> </mrow> </mmultiscripts> <msup> <mrow> <mo> / </mo> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 4 </mn> </mrow> </msup> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> He </mi> </mrow> </math> is <math> <mn> 1.4 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.8 </mn> <mspace></mspace> <mo> ( </mo> <mtext> stat </mtext> <mo> ) </mo> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.5 </mn> <mspace></mspace> <mo> ( </mo> <mtext> syst </mtext> <mo> ) </mo> </math>.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 9<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.12.004" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1437810" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="PA" >10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2017.12.004</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="2" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1489300-suppression-forward-rapidity-pbpb-collisions-nn-tev" itemprop="url">ϒ suppression at forward rapidity in Pb–Pb collisions at <math> <msqrt> <mrow> <msub> <mrow> <mi> s </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> NN </mi> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 5.02 </mn> <mspace></mspace> <mtext> TeV </mtext> </math></a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Acharya, S.</span> ; <span class="author">Acosta, F. T.</span> ; <span class="author">Adamová, D.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics Letters B</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">Inclusive Υ(1S)<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> and Υ(2S) production have been measured in Pb–Pb collisions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon–nucleon pair <math> <msqrt> <mrow> <msub> <mrow> <mi> s </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> NN </mi> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 5.02 </mn> </math> TeV, using the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. The Υ mesons are reconstructed in the centre-of-mass rapidity interval <math> <mn> 2.5 </mn> <mo> < </mo> <mi> y </mi> <mo> < </mo> <mn> 4 </mn> </math> and in the transverse-momentum range <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> p </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> T </mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo> < </mo> <mn> 15 </mn> </math> GeV/ <em>c</em>, via their decays to muon pairs. In this Letter, we present results on the inclusive Υ(1S) nuclear modification factor <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> R </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> AA </mi> </mrow> </msub> </math> as a function of collision centrality, transverse momentum and rapidity. The Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> R </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mtext> AA </mtext> </mrow> </msub> </math>, integrated over the centrality range 0–90%, are <math> <mn> 0.37 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.02 </mn> <mrow> <mo> ( </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> stat </mi> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.03 </mn> <mrow> <mo> ( </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> syst </mi> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> </math> and <math> <mn> 0.10 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.04 </mn> <mrow> <mo> ( </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> stat </mi> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.02 </mn> <mrow> <mo> ( </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> syst </mi> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> </math>, respectively, leading to a ratio <math> <msubsup> <mrow> <mi> R </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> AA </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> V </mi> <mo> ( </mo> <mrow> <mn> 2S </mn> </mrow> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> </msubsup> <mo> / </mo> <msubsup> <mrow> <mi> R </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> AA </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> Υ </mi> <mo> ( </mo> <mrow> <mn> 1S </mn> </mrow> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> </msubsup> </math> of <math> <mn> 0.28 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.12 </mn> <mtext> (stat) </mtext> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.06 </mn> <mtext> (syst) </mtext> </math>. The observed Υ(1S) suppression increases with the centrality of the collision and no significant variation is observed as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity.(1S) and Υ(2S) production have been measured in Pb–Pb collisions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon–nucleon pair <math> <msqrt> <mrow> <msub> <mrow> <mi> s </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> NN </mi> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 5.02 </mn> </math> TeV, using the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. The Υ mesons are reconstructed in the centre-of-mass rapidity interval <math> <mn> 2.5 </mn> <mo> < </mo> <mi> y </mi> <mo> < </mo> <mn> 4 </mn> </math> and in the transverse-momentum range <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> p </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> T </mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo> < </mo> <mn> 15 </mn> </math> GeV/ <em>c</em>, via their decays to muon pairs. In this Letter, we present results on the inclusive Υ(1S) nuclear modification factor <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> R </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> AA </mi> </mrow> </msub> </math> as a function of collision centrality, transverse momentum and rapidity. The Υ(1S) and Υ(2S) <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> R </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mtext> AA </mtext> </mrow> </msub> </math>, integrated over the centrality range 0–90%, are <math> <mn> 0.37 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.02 </mn> <mrow> <mo> ( </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> stat </mi> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.03 </mn> <mrow> <mo> ( </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> syst </mi> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> </math> and <math> <mn> 0.10 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.04 </mn> <mrow> <mo> ( </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> stat </mi> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.02 </mn> <mrow> <mo> ( </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> syst </mi> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> </math>, respectively, leading to a ratio <math> <msubsup> <mrow> <mi> R </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> AA </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> Υ </mi> <mo> ( </mo> <mrow> <mn> 2S </mn> </mrow> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> </msubsup> <mo> / </mo> <msubsup> <mrow> <mi> R </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> AA </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> Υ </mi> <mo> ( </mo> <mrow> <mn> 1S </mn> </mrow> <mo> ) </mo> </mrow> </msubsup> </math> of <math> <mn> 0.28 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.12 </mn> <mtext> (stat) </mtext> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 0.06 </mn> <mtext> (syst) </mtext> </math>. The observed Υ(1S) suppression increases with the centrality of the collision and no significant variation is observed as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 4<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2018.11.067" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1489300" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="PA" >10.1016/j.physletb.2018.11.067</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="4" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1716827-observable-signatures-initial-state-momentum-anisotropies-nuclear-collisions" itemprop="url">Observable signatures of initial state momentum anisotropies in nuclear collisions</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Giacalone, Giuliano</span> ; <span class="author">Schenke, Björn</span> ; <span class="author">Shen, Chun</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physical Review Letters</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">In<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> this work, we show that the correlation between the elliptic momentum anisotropy <math> <msub> <mi> v </mi> <mn> 2 </mn> </msub> </math> and the average transverse momentum <math> <mo> [ </mo> <msub> <mi> p </mi> <mi> T </mi> </msub> <mo> ] </mo> </math> at fixed multiplicity in small system nuclear collisions carries information on the origin of the observed momentum anisotropy. A calculation using a hybrid IP-Glasma+music+UrQMD model that includes contributions from final state response to the initial geometry as well as initial state momentum anisotropies of the color glass condensate predicts a characteristic sign change of the correlator <math> <mover> <mi> ρ </mi> <mo> ^ </mo> </mover> <mo> ( </mo> <msubsup> <mi> v </mi> <mn> 2 </mn> <mn> 2 </mn> </msubsup> <mo> , </mo> <mo> [ </mo> <msub> <mi> p </mi> <mi> T </mi> </msub> <mo> ] </mo> <mo> ) </mo> </math> as a function of charged particle multiplicity in <math> <mi> p </mi> <mo> + </mo> <mtext> Au </mtext> </math> and <math> <mi> d </mi> <mo> + </mo> <mtext> Au </mtext> </math> collisions at <math> <msqrt> <mi> s </mi> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 200 </mn> <mtext> </mtext> <mtext> </mtext> <mi> GeV </mi> </math>, and <math> <mi> p </mi> <mo> + </mo> <mi> Pb </mi> </math> collisions at <math> <msqrt> <mi> s </mi> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 5.02 </mn> <mtext> </mtext> <mtext> </mtext> <mi> TeV </mi> </math>. This sign change is absent in calculations without initial state momentum anisotropies. The model further predicts a qualitative difference between the centrality dependence of <math> <mover> <mi> ρ </mi> <mo> ^ </mo> </mover> <mo> ( </mo> <msubsup> <mi> v </mi> <mn> 2 </mn> <mn> 2 </mn> </msubsup> <mo> , </mo> <mo> [ </mo> <msub> <mi> p </mi> <mi> T </mi> </msub> <mo> ] </mo> <mo> ) </mo> </math> in <math> <mrow> <mi> Au </mi> <mo> + </mo> <mrow> <mi> Au </mi> </mrow> </mrow> </math> collisions at <math> <msqrt> <mi> s </mi> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 200 </mn> <mtext> </mtext> <mtext> </mtext> <mi> GeV </mi> </math> and <math> <mrow> <mi> Pb </mi> <mo> + </mo> <mrow> <mi> Pb </mi> </mrow> </mrow> </math> collisions at <math> <msqrt> <mi> s </mi> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 5.02 </mn> <mtext> </mtext> <mtext> </mtext> <mi> TeV </mi> </math>, with only the latter showing a sign change in peripheral events. Predictions for <math> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> O </mi> <mo> + </mo> <mi mathvariant="normal"> O </mi> </mrow> </math> collisions at different collision energy show a similar behavior. Experimental observation of these distinct qualitative features of <math> <mover> <mi> ρ </mi> <mo> ^ </mo> </mover> <mo> ( </mo> <msubsup> <mi> v </mi> <mn> 2 </mn> <mn> 2 </mn> </msubsup> <mo> , </mo> <mo> [ </mo> <msub> <mi> p </mi> <mi> T </mi> </msub> <mo> ] </mo> <mo> ) </mo> </math> in small and large systems would constitute strong evidence for the presence and importance of initial state momentum anisotropies predicted by the color glass condensate effective theory.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.192301" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1716827" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.192301</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="6" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1433298-color-confinement-hadron-dynamics-hadron-spectroscopy-from-light-front-holography-superconformal-algebra" itemprop="url">Color Confinement, Hadron Dynamics, and Hadron Spectroscopy from Light-Front Holography and Superconformal Algebra</a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Brodsky, Stanley J.</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Advances in High Energy Physics</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">T<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> he QCD light-front Hamiltonian equation <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> H </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> L </mi> <mi mathvariant="normal"> F </mi> </mrow> </msub> <mfenced> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> Ψ </mi> </mrow> </mfenced> <mo> = </mo> <msup> <mrow> <mi> M </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 2 </mn> </mrow> </msup> <mfenced> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> Ψ </mi> </mrow> </mfenced> </math> derived from quantization at fixed LF time <math> <mi> τ </mi> <mo> = </mo> <mi> t </mi> <mo>   </mo> <mo>   </mo> <mo> + </mo> <mo>   </mo> <mo>   </mo> <mi> z </mi> <mo> / </mo> <mi> c </mi> </math> provides a causal, frame-independent method for computing hadron spectroscopy as well as dynamical observables such as structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and distribution amplitudes. he QCD Lagrangian with zero quark mass has no explicit mass scale. de Alfaro, Fubini, and Furlan (dAFF) have made an important observation that a mass scale can appear in the equations of motion without affecting the conformal invariance of the action if one adds a term to the Hamiltonian proportional to the dilatation operator or the special conformal operator. If one applies the dAFF procedure to the QCD light-front Hamiltonian, it leads to a color-confining potential <math> <msup> <mrow> <mi> κ </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 4 </mn> </mrow> </msup> <msup> <mrow> <mi> ζ </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 2 </mn> </mrow> </msup> </math> for mesons, where <math> <mrow> <msup> <mrow> <mi> ζ </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 2 </mn> </mrow> </msup> </mrow> </math> is the LF radial variable conjugate to the <math> <mi> q </mi> <mover> <mrow> <mi> q </mi> </mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mover> </math> invariant mass squared. he same result, including spin terms, is obtained using light-front holography, the duality between light-front dynamics and <math> <mrow> <msub> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> A </mi> <mi mathvariant="normal"> d </mi> <mi mathvariant="normal"> S </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 5 </mn> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> </math> , if one modifies the <math> <mrow> <msub> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> A </mi> <mi mathvariant="normal"> d </mi> <mi mathvariant="normal"> S </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 5 </mn> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> </math> action by the dilaton <math> <msup> <mrow> <mi> e </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <msup> <mrow> <mi> κ </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 2 </mn> </mrow> </msup> <msup> <mrow> <mi> z </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 2 </mn> </mrow> </msup> </mrow> </msup> </math> in the fifth dimension <math> <mrow> <mi> z </mi> </mrow> </math> . When one generalizes this procedure using superconformal algebra, the resulting light-front eigensolutions provide a unified Regge spectroscopy of meson, baryon, and tetraquarks, including remarkable supersymmetric relations between the masses of mesons and baryons and a universal Regge slope. he pion <math> <mi> q </mi> <mover> <mrow> <mi> q </mi> </mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mover> </math> eigenstate has zero mass at <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> m </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi> q </mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 0 </mn> <mo> . </mo> </math> he superconformal relations also can be extended to heavy-light quark mesons and baryons. his approach also leads to insights into the physics underlying hadronization at the amplitude level. I will also discuss the remarkable features of the Poincaré invariant, causal vacuum defined by light-front quantization and its impact on the interpretation of the cosmological constant. AdS/QCD also predicts the analytic form of the nonperturbative running coupling <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> α </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi> s </mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo> ( </mo> <msup> <mrow> <mi> Q </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 2 </mn> </mrow> </msup> <mo> ) </mo> <mo> ∝ </mo> <msup> <mrow> <mi> e </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mo> - </mo> <msup> <mrow> <mi> Q </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 2 </mn> </mrow> </msup> <mo> / </mo> <mn> 4 </mn> <msup> <mrow> <mi> κ </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 2 </mn> </mrow> </msup> </mrow> </msup> </math> . he mass scale <math> <mrow> <mi> κ </mi> </mrow> </math> underlying hadron masses can be connected to the parameter <math> <mrow> <msub> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> Λ </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mover> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> M </mi> <mi mathvariant="normal"> S </mi> </mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mover> </mrow> </msub> </mrow> </math> in the QCD running coupling by matching the nonperturbative dynamics to the perturbative QCD regime. he result is an effective coupling <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> α </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi> s </mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo> ( </mo> <msup> <mrow> <mi> Q </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mn> 2 </mn> </mrow> </msup> <mo> ) </mo> </math> defined at all momenta. One obtains empirically viable predictions for spacelike and timelike hadronic form factors, structure functions, distribution amplitudes, and transverse momentum distributions. Finally, I address the interesting question of whether the momentum sum rule is valid for nuclear structure functions.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 1<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7236382" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1433298" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="PA" >10.1155/2018/7236382</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> <li> <div class="article item document" itemprop="itemListElement" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage"><meta itemprop="position" content="8" /><div class="item-info"> <h2 class="title" itemprop="name headline"><a href="/biblio/1525288-first-observation-forward-zbb-production-pp-collisions" itemprop="url">First observation of forward <math> <mi> Z </mi> <mo> → </mo> <mi> b </mi> <mover> <mrow> <mi> b </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mrow> </mover> </math> production in pp collisions at <math> <msqrt> <mrow> <mi> s </mi> </mrow> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 8 </mn> <mtext>  TeV </mtext> </math></a></h2> <div class="metadata"> <small class="text-muted" style="text-transform:uppercase;display:block;line-height:2.5em;">Journal Article</small><span class="authors"> <span class="author">Aaij, R.</span> ; <span class="author">Adeva, B.</span> ; <span class="author">Adinolfi, M.</span> ; <span class="author">...</span> <span class="text-muted pubdata"> - Physics Letters B</span> </span> </div> <div class="abstract">T<a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().next().show().next().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;'>more »</a><span style='display:none;'> he decay <math> <mi> Z </mi> <mo> → </mo> <mi> b </mi> <mover> <mrow> <mi> b </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mrow> </mover> </math> is reconstructed in <em>pp</em> collision data, corresponding to 2 fb <sup>-1</sup> of integrated luminosity, collected by the LHCb experiment at a centre-of-mass energy of <math> <msqrt> <mrow> <mi> s </mi> </mrow> </msqrt> <mo> = </mo> <mn> 8 </mn> </math> eV. he product of the <em>Z</em> production cross-section and the <math> <mi> Z </mi> <mo> → </mo> <mi> b </mi> <mover> <mrow> <mi> b </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mrow> </mover> </math> branching fraction is measured for candidates in the fiducial region defined by two particle-level <em>b</em>-quark jets with pseudorapidities in the range <math> <mn> 2.2 </mn> <mo> < </mo> <mi> η </mi> <mo> < </mo> <mn> 4.2 </mn> </math>, with transverse momenta <math> <msub> <mrow> <mi> p </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi mathvariant="normal"> </mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo> > </mo> <mn> 20 </mn> </math> GeV and dijet invariant mass in the range <math> <mn> 45 </mn> <mo> < </mo> <msub> <mrow> <mi> m </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mi> j </mi> <mi> j </mi> </mrow> </msub> <mo> < </mo> <mn> 165 </mn> </math> GeV. From a signal yield of <math> <mn> 5462 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 763 </mn> </math> <math> <mi> Z </mi> <mo> → </mo> <mi> b </mi> <mover> <mrow> <mi> b </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mrow> </mover> </math> events, where the uncertainty is statistical, a production cross-section times branching fraction of <math> <mn> 332 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 46 </mn> <mo> ± </mo> <mn> 59 </mn> </math> pb is obtained, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. he measured significance of the signal yield is 6.0 standard deviations. his measurement represents the first observation of the <math> <mi> Z </mi> <mo> → </mo> <mi> b </mi> <mover> <mrow> <mi> b </mi> </mrow> <mrow> <mo> ¯ </mo> </mrow> </mover> </math> production in the forward region of <em>pp</em> collisions.</span><a href='#' onclick='$(this).hide().prev().hide().prev().show();return false;' style='margin-left:10px;display:none;'>« less</a></div><div class="metadata-links small clearfix text-muted" style="margin-top:15px;"> <span class="fa fa-book text-muted" aria-hidden="true"></span> Cited by 2<div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal pull-right" style="width:unset;"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink">DOI: <a class="misc doi-link " href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2017.11.066" target="_blank" rel="noopener" title="Link to document DOI" data-ostiid="1525288" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >10.1016/j.physletb.2017.11.066</a></span></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><span class="item-info-ftlink"><a class="misc fulltext-link " href="/servlets/purl/1525288" title="Link to document media" target="_blank" rel="noopener" data-ostiid="1525288" data-product-type="Journal Article" data-product-subtype="AM" >Full Text Available</a></span></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="clearfix"></div> </div> </li> </ul> </aside> </div> </section> </div> <div class="col-sm-3 order-sm-3"> <ul class="nav nav-stacked"> <li class="active"><a class="tab-nav disabled" data-tab="related" style="color: #636c72 !important; opacity: 1;"><span class="fa fa-angle-right"></span> Similar Records</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </section> </div></div> </div> </div> </section> <footer class="" style="background-color:#f9f9f9; /* padding-top: 0.5rem; */"> <div class="footer-minor"> <div class="container"> <hr class="footer-separator" /> <div class="text-center" style="margin-top:1.25rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list" id="footer-org-menu"> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="https://energy.gov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-us-doe-min" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="https://www.energy.gov/science/office-science" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-office-of-science-min" alt="Office of Science" /> </a> </li> <li class="pure-menu-item d-block d-inline-small"> <a href="/"> <img src="data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAP///wAAACH5BAEAAAAALAAAAAABAAEAAAICRAEAOw==" class="sprite sprite-footer-osti-min" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" /> </a> </li> </ul> </div> </div> <div class="text-center small" style="margin-top:0.5em;margin-bottom:2.0rem;"> <div class="pure-menu pure-menu-horizontal"> <ul class="pure-menu-list"> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/disclaim" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-institution"></span> Website Policies <span class="d-none d-sm-inline" style="color:#737373;">/ Important Links</span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="/contact" class="pure-menu-link"><span class="fa fa-comments-o"></span> Contact Us</a></li> <li class="d-block d-md-none mb-1"></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-facebook" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://twitter.com/OSTIgov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-twitter" style=""></span></a></li> <li class="pure-menu-item"><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/ostigov" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer" class="pure-menu-link social"><span class="fa fa-youtube-play" style=""></span></a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> </footer> <link href="/css/ostigov.fonts.200910.1910.css" rel="stylesheet"> <script src="/js/ostigov.200910.1910.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script src='https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/mathjax/2.7.5/MathJax.js?config=TeX-MML-AM_CHTML' async> MathJax.Hub.Config({ tex2jax: {displayMath: [], inlineMath: [['$$','$$'], ['\\(','\\)']]}, asciimath2jax: {delimiters: []}, skipStartupTypeset: true, webFont: null, CommonHTML: { scale: 84, // mathjx wants to scale everything to 119% by default? mtextFontInherit: true } }); MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Typeset",MathJax.Hub,"item-list"]); MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Typeset",MathJax.Hub,"citation-pagetitle"]); MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Typeset",MathJax.Hub,"citation-abstract"]); </script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/js/ostigov.biblio.200910.1910.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script defer src="/js/lity.js"></script><noscript></noscript> <script async type="text/javascript" src="/js/Universal-Federated-Analytics-Min.js?agency=DOE" id="_fed_an_ua_tag"></script><noscript></noscript> </body> <!-- OSTI.GOV v.200910.1910 --> </html>