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Title: DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks

Abstract

In this paper, we exploit the inherent hierarchy of heat exchangers in District Heating and Cooling (DHC) networks and propose DReAM, a novel Demand Response (DR) architecture for Multi-level DHC networks. DReAM serves to economize system operation while still respecting comfort requirements of individual consumers. Contrary to many present day DR schemes that work on a consumer level granularity, DReAM works at a level of hierarchy above buildings, i.e. substations that supply heat to a group of buildings. This improves the overall DR scalability and reduce the computational complexity. In the first step of the proposed approach, mathematical models of individual substations and their downstream networks are abstracted into appropriately constructed low-complexity structural forms. In the second step, this abstracted information is employed by the utility to perform DR optimization that determines the optimal heat inflow to individual substations rather than buildings, in order to achieve the targeted objectives across the network. We validate the proposed DReAM framework through experimental results under different scenarios on a test network.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1361988
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-126256
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Future Energy Systems (e-Energy 2017), May 16-19, 2017 Shatin, Hong Kong, 353-359
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Bhattacharya, Saptarshi, Chandan, Vikas, Arya, Vijay, and Kar, Koushik. DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1145/3077839.3084079.
Bhattacharya, Saptarshi, Chandan, Vikas, Arya, Vijay, & Kar, Koushik. DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks. United States. doi:10.1145/3077839.3084079.
Bhattacharya, Saptarshi, Chandan, Vikas, Arya, Vijay, and Kar, Koushik. Fri . "DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks". United States. doi:10.1145/3077839.3084079.
@article{osti_1361988,
title = {DReAM: Demand Response Architecture for Multi-level District Heating and Cooling Networks},
author = {Bhattacharya, Saptarshi and Chandan, Vikas and Arya, Vijay and Kar, Koushik},
abstractNote = {In this paper, we exploit the inherent hierarchy of heat exchangers in District Heating and Cooling (DHC) networks and propose DReAM, a novel Demand Response (DR) architecture for Multi-level DHC networks. DReAM serves to economize system operation while still respecting comfort requirements of individual consumers. Contrary to many present day DR schemes that work on a consumer level granularity, DReAM works at a level of hierarchy above buildings, i.e. substations that supply heat to a group of buildings. This improves the overall DR scalability and reduce the computational complexity. In the first step of the proposed approach, mathematical models of individual substations and their downstream networks are abstracted into appropriately constructed low-complexity structural forms. In the second step, this abstracted information is employed by the utility to perform DR optimization that determines the optimal heat inflow to individual substations rather than buildings, in order to achieve the targeted objectives across the network. We validate the proposed DReAM framework through experimental results under different scenarios on a test network.},
doi = {10.1145/3077839.3084079},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri May 19 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri May 19 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Conference:
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  • District-heating-and-cooling (DHC) systems are a proven energy solution that has been deployed for many years in a growing number of urban areas worldwide. They comprise a variety of technologies that seek to develop synergies between the production and supply of heat, cooling, domestic hot water and electricity. Although the benefits of DHC systems are significant and have been widely acclaimed, yet the full potential of modern DHC systems remains largely untapped. There are several opportunities for development of energy efficient DHC systems, which will enable the effective exploitation of alternative renewable resources, waste heat recovery, etc., in order to increasemore » the overall efficiency and facilitate the transition towards the next generation of DHC systems. This motivated the need for modelling these complex systems. Large-scale modelling of DHC-networks is challenging, as it has several components such as buildings, pipes, valves, heating source, etc., interacting with each other. In this paper, we focus on building modelling. In particular, we present a gray-box methodology for thermal modelling of buildings. Gray-box modelling is a hybrid of data driven and physics based models where, coefficients of the equations from physics based models are learned using data. This approach allows us to capture the dynamics of the buildings more effectively as compared to pure data driven approach. Additionally, this approach results in a simpler models as compared to pure physics based models. We first develop the individual components of the building such as temperature evolution, flow controller, etc. These individual models are then integrated in to the complete gray-box model for the building. The model is validated using data collected from one of the buildings at Lule{\aa}, a city on the coast of northern Sweden.« less
  • District heating and cooling systems (DHC) are a proven energy solution that has been deployed for many years in a growing number of urban areas worldwide. They comprise a variety of technologies that seek to develop synergies between the production and supply of heat, cooling, domestic hot water and electricity. Although the benefits of DHC systems are significant and have been widely acclaimed, yet the full potential of modern DHC systems remains largely untapped. There are several opportunities for development of energy efficient DHC systems, which will enable the effective exploitation of alternative renewable resources, waste heat recovery, etc., inmore » order to increase the overall efficiency and facilitate the transition towards the next generation of DHC systems. This motivated the need for modelling these complex systems. Large-scale modelling of DHC-networks is challenging, as it has several components interacting with each other. In this paper we present two building methodologies to model the consumer buildings. These models will be further integrated with network model and the control system layer to create a virtual test bed for the entire DHC system. The model is validated using data collected from a real life DHC system located at Lulea, a city on the coast of northern Sweden. The test bed will be then used for simulating various test cases such as peak energy reduction, overall demand reduction etc.« less
  • In 1888, the proprietors of the Grand Opera House in Indianapolis requested electric light and steam heating service from the new Marmon-Perry Lighting Company, which the following year installed a small plant nearby to light several buildings and also heat the Opera House with exhaust steam piped through 250 feet of four-inch pipe. Indianapolis soon turned to natural gas for its heating needs, but the depletion of local gas fields at the turn of the century led to installation of several new low pressure steam and hot water district heating systems in the Indiana capital. These combined heat and powermore » systems were finally merged together in 1927 to form Indianapolis Power and Light, which recently became a subsidiary of IPALCO Enterprises and is now the second-largest district energy utility in the United States. Mid-America Energy Resources, and unregulated subsidiary of IPALCO Enterprises formed in 1989, operates a 20,000 ton (70.4 mW) chilled water plant serving seventeen customers in downtown Indianapolis and also owns another district heating and cooling system serving downtown Cleveland.« less
  • The Phase I Identification and Assessment Study was aimed at surveying the State of Wisconsin to identify potential sites for a district heating system and evaluating these sites in terms of their technical, institutional and economic merits. Specific objectives of the study were to: identify candidate plants and service areas and to perform an energy market analysis for selected areas; identify and evaluate plant retrofit and distribution alternatives for the selected service areas; identify and evaluate institutional problems within the infrastructure; and perform an economic analysis for the candidate sites. The overall approach consisted of surveying the State of Wisconsinmore » to identify all existing intermediate and base-loaded electric generating facilities. Once identified, screening criteria were developed to narrow the list to the three most promising sites. For each of the three sites, an extensive market analysis was performed to identify and characterize thermal loads and survey potential users on their views and concerns on the concept. Parallel to this effort, each of the three sites was evaluated on its technical and institutional merits. The technical evaluation centered on identifying and evaluating utility plant retrofit schemes and distribution system alternatives to service the identified thermal market. The institutional analysis evaluated potential barriers such as environmental, distribution system right-of-way and legal issues within the infrastructure of the state, city and community. Finally, all previous aspects of the analysis were combined to determine the economic viability of each site. The most promising site is Green Bay where process heat loads as well as building heat loads are located near the Pulliam Power Plant.« less
  • Appendix A, Utility Plant Characteristics, contains information describing the characteristics of seven utility plants that were considered during the final site selection process. The plants are: Valley Electric Generating Plant, downtown Milwaukee; Manitowoc Electric Generating Plant, downtown Manitowoc; Blount Street Electric Generating Plant, downtown Madison; Pulliam Electric Generating Plant, downtown Green Bay; Edgewater Electric Generating Plant, downtown Sheboygan; Rock River Electric Generating Plant, near Janesville and Beloit; and Black Hawk Electric Generating Plant, downtown Beloit. Additional appendices are: Future Loads; hvac Inventory; Load Calculations; Factors to Induce Potential Users; Turbine Retrofit/Distribution System Data; and Detailed Economic Analysis Results/Data.