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Title: Energy and Capital-Efficient Sorbent-Based CO 2 Capture

Authors:
 [1]
  1. InnoSepra, LLC, Middlesex, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
InnoSepra, LLC, Middlesex, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Clean Coal and Carbon (FE-20)
OSTI Identifier:
1361418
Report Number(s):
DOE-InnoSepra-10208-2
DOE Contract Number:
SC0010208
Type / Phase:
SBIR
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; Carbon capture; coal-fired power plants

Citation Formats

Jain, Ravi. Energy and Capital-Efficient Sorbent-Based CO2 Capture. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Jain, Ravi. Energy and Capital-Efficient Sorbent-Based CO2 Capture. United States.
Jain, Ravi. Thu . "Energy and Capital-Efficient Sorbent-Based CO2 Capture". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1361418,
title = {Energy and Capital-Efficient Sorbent-Based CO2 Capture},
author = {Jain, Ravi},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • It is increasingly clear that CO 2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO 2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO 2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO 2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advancedmore » Solid Sorbent CO 2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO 2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO 2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO 2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO 2 capture. The overall objective of this project was to mitigate the technical and economic risks associated with the scale-up of solid sorbent-based CO 2 capture processes, enabling subsequent larger pilot demonstrations and ultimately commercial deployment. An integrated development approach has been a key focus of this project in which process development, sorbent development, and economic analyses have informed each of the other development processes. Development efforts have focused on improving the performance stability of sorbent candidates, refining process engineering and design, and evaluating the viability of the technology through detailed economic analyses. Sorbent advancements have led to a next generation, commercially-viable CO 2 capture sorbent exhibiting performance stability in various gas environments and a physically strong fluidizable form. The team has reduced sorbent production costs and optimized the production process and scale-up of PEI-impregnated, fluidizable sorbents. Refinement of the process engineering and design, as well as the construction and operation of a bench-scale research unit has demonstrated promising CO 2 capture performance under simulated coal-fired flue gas conditions. Parametric testing has shown how CO 2 capture performance is impacted by changing process variables, such as Adsorber temperature, Regenerator temperature, superficial flue gas velocity, solids circulation rate, CO 2 partial pressure in the Regenerator, and many others. Long-term testing has generated data for the project team to set the process conditions needed to operate a solids-based system for optimal performance, with continuous 90% CO 2 capture, and no operational interruptions. Data collected from all phases of testing has been used to develop a detailed techno-economic assessment of RTI’s technology. These detailed analyses show that RTI’s technology has significant economic advantages over current amine scrubbing and potential to achieve the DOE’s Carbon Capture Program’s goal of >90% CO 2 capture rate at a cost of < $40/T-CO 2 captured by 2025. Through this integrated technology development approach, the project team has advanced RTI’s CO 2 capture technology to TRL-4 (nearly TRL-5, with the missing variable being testing on actual, coal-fired flue gas), according to the DOE/FE definitions for Technology Readiness Levels. At a broader level, this project has advanced the whole of the solid sorbent CO 2 capture field, with advancements in process engineering and design, technical risk mitigation, sorbent scale-up optimization, and an understanding of the commercial viability and applicability of solid sorbent CO 2 capture technologies for the U.S. existing fleet of coal-fired power plants.« less
  • The focus of this project was the ADAsorb™ CO 2 Capture Process, a temperature-swing adsorption process that incorporates a three-stage fluidized bed as the adsorber and a single-stage fluidized bed as the regenerator. ADAsorb™ system was designed, fabricated, and tested under DOE award DEFE0004343. Two amine-based sorbents were evaluated in conjunction with the ADAsorb™ process: “BN”, an ion-exchange resin; and “OJ”, a metal organic framework (MOF) sorbent. Two cross heat exchanger designs were evaluated for use between the adsorber and regenerator: moving bed and fluidized bed. The fluidized bed approach was rejected fairly early in the project because the additionalmore » electrical load to power blowers or fans to overcome the pressure drop required for fluidization was estimated to be nominally three times the electrical power that could be generated from the steam saved through the use of the cross heat exchanger. The Energy Research Center at Lehigh University built and utilized a process model of the ADAsorb™ capture process and integrated this model into an existing model of a supercritical PC power plant. The Lehigh models verified that, for the ADAsorb™ system, the largest contributor to parasitic power was lost electrical generation, which was primarily electric power which the host plant could not generate due to the extraction of low pressure (LP) steam for sorbent heating, followed by power for the CO 2 compressor and the blower or fan power required to fluidize the adsorber and regenerator. Sorbent characteristics such as the impacts of moisture uptake, optimized adsorption and regeneration temperature, and sensitivity to changes in pressure were also included in the modeling study. Results indicate that sorbents which adsorb more than 1-2% moisture by weight are unlikely to be cost competitive unless they have an extremely high CO 2 working capacity that well exceeds 15% by weight. Modeling also revealed that reductions in adsorber pressure drop could negatively affect the CO 2 adsorption characteristics for sorbents with certain isobar adsorption characteristics like sorbent BN. Thus, reductions in pressure drop do not provide the efficiency benefits expected. A techno-economic assessment conducted during the project revealed that without heat integration, the a metal organic framework (MOF) sorbent used in conjunction with the ADAsorb™ process provided the opportunity for improved performance over the benchmark MEA process. While the addition of a cross heat exchanger and heat integration was found to significantly improve net unit heat rate, the additional equipment costs required to realize these improvements almost always outweighed the improvement in performance. The exception to this was for a supported amine sorbent and the addition of a moving bed cross heat exchanger alone or in conjunction with waste heat from the compressor used for supplemental regenerator heating. Perhaps one of the most important points to be drawn from the work conducted during this project is the significant influence of sorbent characteristics alone on the projected COE and LCOE associated with the ADAsorb™ process, and the implications associated with future improvements to solid sorbent CO 2 capture. The results from this project suggest that solid sorbent CO 2 capture will continue to see performance gains and lower system costs as further sorbent improvements are realized.« less
  • Codexis, Inc.'s Final Technical Report for its ARPA-E project, Low-Cost Biocatalyst for Acceleration of Energy Efficient CO 2 Capture Solvents.
  • The overall goal of this project, as originally proposed, was to optimize the formulation of a novel solvent as a critical enabler for the cost-effective, energy-efficient, environmentally-friendly capture of CO{sub 2} at coal-fired utility plants. Aqueous blends of concentrated piperazine (PZ) with other compounds had been shown to exhibit high rates of CO{sub 2} absorption, low regeneration energy, and other desirable performance characteristics during an earlier 5-year development program conducted by B&W. The specific objective of this project was to identify PZ-based solvent formulations that globally optimize the performance of coal-fired power plants equipped with CO{sub 2} scrubbing systems. Whilemore » previous solvent development studies have tended to focus on energy consumption and absorber size, important issues to be sure, the current work seeks to explore, understand, and optimize solvent formulation across the full gamut of issues related to commercial application of the technology: capital and operating costs, operability, reliability, environmental, health and safety (EH&S), etc. Work on the project was intended to be performed under four budget periods. The objective of the work in the first budget period has been to identify several candidate formulations of a concentrated PZ-based solvent for detailed characterization and evaluation. Work in the second budget period would generate reliable and comprehensive property and performance data for the identified formulations. Work in the third budget period would quantify the expected performance of the selected formulations in a commercial CO{sub 2} scrubbing process. Finally, work in the fourth budget period would provide a final technology feasibility study and a preliminary technology EH&S assessment. Due to other business priorities, however, B&W has requested that this project be terminated at the end of the first budget period. This document therefore serves as the final report for this project. It is the first volume of the two-volume final report and summarizes Budget Period 1 accomplishments under Tasks 1-5 of the project, including the selection of four solvent formulations for further study.« less
  • This project has focused on the verification of the technology and products required to implement a dual stage membrane process for CO 2 capture from coal derived syngas.