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Title: Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Thin-Film Electrodes as a Platform for Nanomolar Detection of Dopamine

Abstract

Here, we present for the first time tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C)—a partially reduced graphene oxide (PRGO) hybrid electrode nanomaterial platform for electrochemical sensing of dopamine (DA). Graphene oxide was synthesized with the modified Hummer’s method. Before modification of ta-C by drop casting, partial reduction of the GO was carried out to improve electrochemical properties and adhesion to the ta-C thin film. A facile nitric acid treatment that slightly reoxidized the surface and modified the surface chemistry was subsequently performed to further improve the electrochemical properties of the electrodes. The largest relative increase was seen in carboxyl groups. The HNO 3 treatment increased the sensitivity toward DA and AA and resulted in a cathodic shift in the oxidation of AA. The fabricated hybrid electrodes were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Moreover, compared to the plain ta-C electrode the hybrid electrode was shown to exhibit superior sensitivity and selectivity toward DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), enabling simultaneous sensing of AA and DA close to the physiological concentrations by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Twomore » linear ranges of 0–1 μM and 1–100 μM and a detection limit (S/N = 3.3) of 2.6 nM for DA were determined by means of cyclic voltammetry. Thus, the current work provides a fully CMOS-compatible carbon based hybrid nanomaterial that shows potential for in vivo measurements of DA.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2]
  1. Aalto Univ., Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Materials Science
  2. Aalto Univ., Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Automation
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Sychrotron Radiation Lightsource
  4. Aalto Univ., Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Forest Products Technology
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1361077
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; AC02-05CH11231; AC02-06CH11357; 259595; 285015; 285526; 211488
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physical Chemistry. C
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 121; Journal Issue: 14; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-7447
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Wester, Niklas, Sainio, Sami, Palomäki, Tommi, Nordlund, Dennis, Singh, Vivek Kumar, Johansson, Leena-Sisko, Koskinen, Jari, and Laurila, Tomi. Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Thin-Film Electrodes as a Platform for Nanomolar Detection of Dopamine. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b13019.
Wester, Niklas, Sainio, Sami, Palomäki, Tommi, Nordlund, Dennis, Singh, Vivek Kumar, Johansson, Leena-Sisko, Koskinen, Jari, & Laurila, Tomi. Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Thin-Film Electrodes as a Platform for Nanomolar Detection of Dopamine. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b13019.
Wester, Niklas, Sainio, Sami, Palomäki, Tommi, Nordlund, Dennis, Singh, Vivek Kumar, Johansson, Leena-Sisko, Koskinen, Jari, and Laurila, Tomi. Thu . "Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Thin-Film Electrodes as a Platform for Nanomolar Detection of Dopamine". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b13019. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1361077.
@article{osti_1361077,
title = {Partially Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon Thin-Film Electrodes as a Platform for Nanomolar Detection of Dopamine},
author = {Wester, Niklas and Sainio, Sami and Palomäki, Tommi and Nordlund, Dennis and Singh, Vivek Kumar and Johansson, Leena-Sisko and Koskinen, Jari and Laurila, Tomi},
abstractNote = {Here, we present for the first time tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C)—a partially reduced graphene oxide (PRGO) hybrid electrode nanomaterial platform for electrochemical sensing of dopamine (DA). Graphene oxide was synthesized with the modified Hummer’s method. Before modification of ta-C by drop casting, partial reduction of the GO was carried out to improve electrochemical properties and adhesion to the ta-C thin film. A facile nitric acid treatment that slightly reoxidized the surface and modified the surface chemistry was subsequently performed to further improve the electrochemical properties of the electrodes. The largest relative increase was seen in carboxyl groups. The HNO3 treatment increased the sensitivity toward DA and AA and resulted in a cathodic shift in the oxidation of AA. The fabricated hybrid electrodes were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Moreover, compared to the plain ta-C electrode the hybrid electrode was shown to exhibit superior sensitivity and selectivity toward DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA), enabling simultaneous sensing of AA and DA close to the physiological concentrations by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Two linear ranges of 0–1 μM and 1–100 μM and a detection limit (S/N = 3.3) of 2.6 nM for DA were determined by means of cyclic voltammetry. Thus, the current work provides a fully CMOS-compatible carbon based hybrid nanomaterial that shows potential for in vivo measurements of DA.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b13019},
journal = {Journal of Physical Chemistry. C},
number = 14,
volume = 121,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Mar 16 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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