skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: High speed ultra-broadband amplitude modulators with ultrahigh extinction >65 dB

Abstract

Here, we experimentally demonstrate ultrahigh extinction ratio (>65 dB) amplitude modulators (AMs) that can be electrically tuned to operate across a broad spectral range of 160 nm from 1480 – 1640 nm and 95 nm from 1280 – 1375 nm. Our on-chip AMs employ one extra coupler compared with conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI), thus form a cascaded MZI (CMZI) structure. Either directional or adiabatic couplers are used to compose the CMZI AMs and experimental comparisons are made between these two different structures. Furthermore, we investigate the performance of CMZI AMs under extreme conditions such as using 95:5 split ratio couplers and unbalanced waveguide losses. Electro-optic phase shifters are also integrated in the CMZI AMs for high-speed operation. Finally, we investigate the output optical phase when the amplitude is modulated, which provides us valuable information when both amplitude and phase are to be controlled. This demonstration not only paves the road to applications such as quantum information processing that requires high extinction ratio AMs but also significantly alleviates the tight fabrication tolerance needed for large-scale integrated photonics.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1360934
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-5006J
Journal ID: ISSN 1094-4087; OPEXFF; 653226
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Optics Express
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 25; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1094-4087
Publisher:
Optical Society of America (OSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Liu, S., Cai, H., DeRose, C. T., Davids, P., Pomerene, A., Starbuck, A. L., Trotter, D. C., Camacho, R., Urayama, J., and Lentine, A.. High speed ultra-broadband amplitude modulators with ultrahigh extinction >65 dB. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1364/oe.25.011254.
Liu, S., Cai, H., DeRose, C. T., Davids, P., Pomerene, A., Starbuck, A. L., Trotter, D. C., Camacho, R., Urayama, J., & Lentine, A.. High speed ultra-broadband amplitude modulators with ultrahigh extinction >65 dB. United States. doi:10.1364/oe.25.011254.
Liu, S., Cai, H., DeRose, C. T., Davids, P., Pomerene, A., Starbuck, A. L., Trotter, D. C., Camacho, R., Urayama, J., and Lentine, A.. Thu . "High speed ultra-broadband amplitude modulators with ultrahigh extinction >65 dB". United States. doi:10.1364/oe.25.011254. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1360934.
@article{osti_1360934,
title = {High speed ultra-broadband amplitude modulators with ultrahigh extinction >65 dB},
author = {Liu, S. and Cai, H. and DeRose, C. T. and Davids, P. and Pomerene, A. and Starbuck, A. L. and Trotter, D. C. and Camacho, R. and Urayama, J. and Lentine, A.},
abstractNote = {Here, we experimentally demonstrate ultrahigh extinction ratio (>65 dB) amplitude modulators (AMs) that can be electrically tuned to operate across a broad spectral range of 160 nm from 1480 – 1640 nm and 95 nm from 1280 – 1375 nm. Our on-chip AMs employ one extra coupler compared with conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI), thus form a cascaded MZI (CMZI) structure. Either directional or adiabatic couplers are used to compose the CMZI AMs and experimental comparisons are made between these two different structures. Furthermore, we investigate the performance of CMZI AMs under extreme conditions such as using 95:5 split ratio couplers and unbalanced waveguide losses. Electro-optic phase shifters are also integrated in the CMZI AMs for high-speed operation. Finally, we investigate the output optical phase when the amplitude is modulated, which provides us valuable information when both amplitude and phase are to be controlled. This demonstration not only paves the road to applications such as quantum information processing that requires high extinction ratio AMs but also significantly alleviates the tight fabrication tolerance needed for large-scale integrated photonics.},
doi = {10.1364/oe.25.011254},
journal = {Optics Express},
number = 10,
volume = 25,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu May 04 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu May 04 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • Design and developmental procedure of strip-line based 1.5 MW, 30-96 MHz, ultra-wideband high power 3 dB hybrid coupler has been presented and its applicability in ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) in tokamak is discussed. For the high power handling capability, spacing between conductors and ground need to very high. Hence other structural parameters like strip-width, strip thickness coupling gap, and junction also become large which can be gone upto optimum limit where various constrains like fabrication tolerance, discontinuities, and excitation of higher TE and TM modes become prominent and significantly deteriorates the desired parameters of the coupled lines system. Inmore » designed hybrid coupler, two 8.34 dB coupled lines are connected in tandem to get desired coupling of 3 dB and air is used as dielectric. The spacing between ground and conductors are taken as 0.164 m for 1.5 MW power handling capability. To have the desired spacing, each of 8.34 dB segments are designed with inner dimension of 3.6 × 1.0 × 40 cm where constraints have been significantly realized, compensated, and applied in designing of 1.5 MW hybrid coupler and presented in paper.« less
  • High-speed optical intensity modulation is reported for the first time using single-mode electro-optic interferometric waveguide modulators formed from Ti-diffused waveguides in LiNbO/sub 3/. For cw 0.633-..mu..m optical inputs, modulation at rates up to 1.4 GHz has been achieved by driving the interferometer through multiple-..pi.. phase shifts. Envelope modulation of a 275-MHz optical pulse train from a cw mode-locked frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser with a 68.9-MHz drive signal has also been demonstrated.
  • We report on room-temperature plasmonic detection of sub-terahertz radiation by InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistors with an asymmetric dual-grating-gate structure. Maximum responsivities of 22.7 kV/W at 200 GHz and 21.5 kV/W at 292 GHz were achieved under unbiased drain-to-source condition. The minimum noise equivalent power was estimated to be 0.48 pW/Hz{sup 0.5} at 200 GHz at room temperature, which is the record-breaking value ever reported for plasmonic THz detectors. Frequency dependence of the responsivity in the frequency range of 0.2–2 THz is in good agreement with the theory.
  • The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developedmore » to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, high-resolution electron energy-loss and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies, and others. Material systems ranging from atomic layers of metals and semiconductors to biology related depositions are being investigated. In the case of biological materials, however, strict limitations to high-resolution applications are imposed by electron radiation damage considerations.« less