skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Global and Planetary Change
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 125; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-05-31 09:20:54; Journal ID: ISSN 0921-8181
Country of Publication:

Citation Formats

Haine, Thomas W. N., Curry, Beth, Gerdes, Rüdiger, Hansen, Edmond, Karcher, Michael, Lee, Craig, Rudels, Bert, Spreen, Gunnar, de Steur, Laura, Stewart, Kial D., and Woodgate, Rebecca. Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects. Netherlands: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.11.013.
Haine, Thomas W. N., Curry, Beth, Gerdes, Rüdiger, Hansen, Edmond, Karcher, Michael, Lee, Craig, Rudels, Bert, Spreen, Gunnar, de Steur, Laura, Stewart, Kial D., & Woodgate, Rebecca. Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.11.013.
Haine, Thomas W. N., Curry, Beth, Gerdes, Rüdiger, Hansen, Edmond, Karcher, Michael, Lee, Craig, Rudels, Bert, Spreen, Gunnar, de Steur, Laura, Stewart, Kial D., and Woodgate, Rebecca. 2015. "Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.11.013.
title = {Arctic freshwater export: Status, mechanisms, and prospects},
author = {Haine, Thomas W. N. and Curry, Beth and Gerdes, Rüdiger and Hansen, Edmond and Karcher, Michael and Lee, Craig and Rudels, Bert and Spreen, Gunnar and de Steur, Laura and Stewart, Kial D. and Woodgate, Rebecca},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.11.013},
journal = {Global and Planetary Change},
number = C,
volume = 125,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2015,
month = 2

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2014.11.013

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 39works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • Temperature rise in the Arctic is causing deepening of active layers and resulting in the mobilization of deep permafrost dissolved organic matter (DOM). However, the mechanisms of DOM mobilization from Arctic soils, especially upper soil horizons which are drained most frequently through a year, are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a short-term leaching experiment on surface and deep organic active layer soils, from the Yukon River basin, to examine the effects of DOM transport on bulk and molecular characteristics. Our data showed a net release of DOM from surface soils equal to an average of 5% of soil carbon. Conversely,more » deep soils percolated with surface leachates retained up to 27% of bulk DOM-while releasing fluorescent components (up to 107%), indicating selective release of aromatic components (e.g. lignin, tannin), while retaining non-chromophoric components, as supported by spectrofluorometric and ultra high resolution mass spectroscopic techniques. Our findings highlight the importance of the lateral flux of DOM on ecosystem carbon balance as well as processing of DOM transport through organic active layer soils en route to rivers and streams. This work also suggests the potential role of leachate export as an important mechanism of C losses from Arctic soils, in comparison with the more traditional pathway from soil to atmosphere in a warming Arctic.« less
  • The response of microorganisms to an accidental spillage of 55,000 gallons of leaded gasoline into an Arctic freshwater lake was studied. Shifts in microbial populations were detected after the spillage, reflecting the migration pattern of the gasoline, enrichment for hydrocarbon utilizers, and selection for leaded-gasoline-tolerant microorganisms. Ratios of gasoline-tolerant/utilizing heterotrophs to ''total'' heterotrophs were found to be a sensitive indicator of the degree of hydrocarbon contamination. Respiration rates were elevated in the highly contaminated area, but did not reflect differences between moderately and lightly contaminated areas. Hydrocarbon biodegradation potential experiments showed that indigenous microorganisms could extensively convert hydrocarbons to CO/submore » 2/. In situ measurement of gasoline degradation showed that, if untreated, sediment samples retained significant amounts of gasoline hydrocarbons including ''volatile components'' at the time the lake froze for the winter. Nutrient addition and bacterial inoculation resulted in enhanced biodegradative losses, significantly reducing the amount of residual hydrocarbons. Enhanced biodegradation, however, resulted in the appearance of compounds not detected in the gasoline. Since the contaminated lake serves as a drinking water supply, treatment to enhance microbial removal of much of the remaining gasoline still may be advisable.« less
  • Metal concentrations in sediment and two species of freshwater fish (lake trout [Salvelinus namaycush], and grayling [Thymallus arcticus]) were examined in four Arctic lakes in Alaska. Concentrations of several metals were naturally high in the sediment relative to uncontaminated lakes in other Arctic regions and more temperate locations. For example, concentrations of Hg and Ni were 175 ng/g and 250 ng/g dry weight, respectively, in Feniak Lake surface sediment. If any anthropogenic enrichment has occurred, it is not distinguishable from background variability based on surface sediment to down core comparisons. With the exception of Hg, the site rank order ofmore » metal concentrations (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in sediment and freshwater fish tissue among lakes is not consistent. This suggests that a number of physical, chemical, and physiological parameters mediate metal bioavailability and uptake in these systems. Maximum concentrations of most metals in fish from this study are equal to or higher than those collected from remote Arctic lakes and rivers in Canada, Finland, and Russia. Muscle Hg concentrations in excess of 1 {micro}g/g wet weight were observed in lake trout from Feniak Lake, which has no identified Hg source other than naturally Hg-enriched sediments. Fish diet seems to influence some heavy metal burdens, as evidenced by the higher concentrations of some metals in lake trout compared to grayling, and differences among lakes for lake trout. Cadmium, Cu, and Zn burdens were higher in lakes where snails were consumed by trout compared to lakes without snails.« less
  • The time function of bomb tritium concentrations in river runoff to the Arctic Ocean has been reconstructed from published data on tritium in precipatatio 1959--1975. Tritium measurements on oceanic samples through the haloclinie exhibit strong linear relatioships between tritium concetrations (TU values) and salinity. These wates thus look like binary mixtures of Atlantic source water and freshwater runoff. Combining these data, the vintage of the freshwater component in the Arctic Basin has been determined assuming no other major tritium source. The relation indicates the average age of the freshwater component to be 11 +- 1 years in the Namsen Basinmore » and the outflow and somewhat higher in the Canada Basin. According to ttitium/salinity data, a surface layer of 10--60 m is affected by sea ice melting and freezing in the Nansen Basin, and the thickness of this layer increases to 150--170 m toward the Canada Basin. There is tritium also in the deep waters, the unumixed Atlantic water, which points at residence times for that water not to exceed 17 years.« less
  • The projects and proposals for moving Arctic energy to market are summarized. These projects include the trans-Alaska oil pipeline, Sohio-El Paso Oil Pipeline Project, Arctic Gas Pipeline, Polar Gas Project, and Maple Leaf Project. (LK)