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Title: Revisiting Supernova 1987A constraints on dark photons

Abstract

We revisit constraints on dark photons with masses below ~ 100 MeV from the observations of Supernova 1987A. If dark photons are produced in sufficient quantity, they reduce the amount of energy emitted in the form of neutrinos, in conflict with observations. For the first time, we include the effects of finite temperature and density on the kinetic-mixing parameter,ϵ, in this environment. This causes the constraints on ϵ to weaken with the dark-photon mass below ~ 15 MeV. For large-enough values of ϵ, it is well known that dark photons can be reabsorbed within the supernova. Since the rates of reabsorption processes decrease as the dark-photon energy increases, we point out that dark photons with energies above the Wien peak can escape without scattering, contributing more to energy loss than is possible assuming a blackbody spectrum. Furthermore, we estimate the systematic uncertainties on the cooling bounds by deriving constraints assuming one analytic and four different simulated temperature and density profiles of the proto-neutron star. Finally, we estimate also the systematic uncertainty on the bound by varying the distance across which dark photons must propagate from their point of production to be able to affect the star. Finally, this work clarifiesmore » the bounds from SN1987A on the dark-photon parameter space.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). C.N. Yang Inst. for Theoretical Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1360795
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0008061; PHY1316617
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of High Energy Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of High Energy Physics (Online); Journal Volume: 2017; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1029-8479
Publisher:
Springer Berlin
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; Beyond Standard Model; Thermal Field Theory

Citation Formats

Chang, Jae Hyeok, Essig, Rouven, and McDermott, Samuel D. Revisiting Supernova 1987A constraints on dark photons. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2017)107.
Chang, Jae Hyeok, Essig, Rouven, & McDermott, Samuel D. Revisiting Supernova 1987A constraints on dark photons. United States. doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2017)107.
Chang, Jae Hyeok, Essig, Rouven, and McDermott, Samuel D. Wed . "Revisiting Supernova 1987A constraints on dark photons". United States. doi:10.1007/JHEP01(2017)107. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1360795.
@article{osti_1360795,
title = {Revisiting Supernova 1987A constraints on dark photons},
author = {Chang, Jae Hyeok and Essig, Rouven and McDermott, Samuel D.},
abstractNote = {We revisit constraints on dark photons with masses below ~ 100 MeV from the observations of Supernova 1987A. If dark photons are produced in sufficient quantity, they reduce the amount of energy emitted in the form of neutrinos, in conflict with observations. For the first time, we include the effects of finite temperature and density on the kinetic-mixing parameter,ϵ, in this environment. This causes the constraints on ϵ to weaken with the dark-photon mass below ~ 15 MeV. For large-enough values of ϵ, it is well known that dark photons can be reabsorbed within the supernova. Since the rates of reabsorption processes decrease as the dark-photon energy increases, we point out that dark photons with energies above the Wien peak can escape without scattering, contributing more to energy loss than is possible assuming a blackbody spectrum. Furthermore, we estimate the systematic uncertainties on the cooling bounds by deriving constraints assuming one analytic and four different simulated temperature and density profiles of the proto-neutron star. Finally, we estimate also the systematic uncertainty on the bound by varying the distance across which dark photons must propagate from their point of production to be able to affect the star. Finally, this work clarifies the bounds from SN1987A on the dark-photon parameter space.},
doi = {10.1007/JHEP01(2017)107},
journal = {Journal of High Energy Physics (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 2017,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 25 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Jan 25 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 11works
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  • We consider the constraints from Supernova 1987A on particles with small couplings to the Standard Model. We discuss a model with a fermion coupled to a dark photon, with various mass relations in the dark sector; millicharged particles; dark-sector fermions with inelastic transitions; the hadronic QCD axion; and an axion-like particle that couples to Standard Model fermions with couplings proportional to their mass. In the fermion cases, we develop a new diagnostic for assessing when such a particle is trapped at large mixing angles. Our bounds for a fermion coupled to a dark photon constrain small couplings and masses <200more » MeV, and do not decouple for low fermion masses. They exclude parameter space that is otherwise unconstrained by existing accelerator-based and direct-detection searches. In addition, our bounds are complementary to proposed laboratory searches for sub-GeV dark matter, and do not constrain several "thermal" benchmark-model targets. For a millicharged particle, we exclude charges between 10^(-9) to a few times 10^(-6) in units of the electron charge; this excludes parameter space to higher millicharges and masses than previous bounds. For the QCD axion and an axion-like particle, we apply several updated nuclear physics calculations and include the energy dependence of the optical depth to accurately account for energy loss at large couplings. We rule out a hadronic axion of mass between 0.1 and a few hundred eV, or equivalently bound the PQ scale between a few times 10^4 and 10^8 GeV, closing the hadronic axion window. For an axion-like particle, our bounds disfavor decay constants between a few times 10^5 GeV up to a few times 10^8 GeV. In all cases, our bounds differ from previous work by more than an order of magnitude across the entire parameter space. We also provide estimated systematic errors due to the uncertainties of the progenitor.« less
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