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Title: Laser lift-off scribing of the CZTSe thin-film solar cells at different pulse durations

Abstract

Here, the transition to fully sized solar modules requires additional three-step laser structuring processes to preserve small-scale cell efficiencies over the large areas. The adjacent cell isolation (the P3 scribe) was found to be the most sensitive process in the case of laser induced damage. The laser induced layer lift-off mechanism seems to be a very attractive process for the P3 patterning, since almost all the laser affected material is removed by mechanical spallation. However, a laser induced layer spallation behavior together with scribe electrical validation under the different laser pulse durations was not investigated extensively in the past. Therefore, we report our novel results on the P2 and P3 laser lift-off processing of the Cu 2ZnSn(S, Se 4) (CZTSe) thin-film solar cells covering the pulse duration range from 300 fs to 60 ps. Shorter sub-ps pulses enabled us to process smaller P2 and P3 craters, although the lift-off threshold fluences were higher compared to the longer ps pulses. In the case of the layer lift-off, the laser radiation had to penetrate through the layer stack down to the CZTSe/Mo interface. At shorter sub-ps pulses, the nonlinear effects triggered absorption of the laser radiation in the bulk of the material,more » resulting in increased damage of the CZTSe layer. The Raman measurements confirmed the CZTSe surface stoichiometry changes for shorter pulses. Furthermore, shorter pulses induced higher electrical conductivity of a scribe, resulting in lower photo-electrical efficiency during the mini-module simulation. In the case of the P3 lift-off scribing, the 10 ps pulses were more favorable than shorter femtosecond pulses.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Vilnius (Lithuania)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1360670
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5J00-68599
Journal ID: ISSN 0038-092X
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Solar Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 150; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0038-092X
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; kesterite; CZTSe; lift-off; laser ablation

Citation Formats

Markauskas, Edgaras, Gečys, Paulius, Repins, Ingrid, Beall, Carolyn, and Račiukaitis, Gediminas. Laser lift-off scribing of the CZTSe thin-film solar cells at different pulse durations. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2017.01.074.
Markauskas, Edgaras, Gečys, Paulius, Repins, Ingrid, Beall, Carolyn, & Račiukaitis, Gediminas. Laser lift-off scribing of the CZTSe thin-film solar cells at different pulse durations. United States. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2017.01.074.
Markauskas, Edgaras, Gečys, Paulius, Repins, Ingrid, Beall, Carolyn, and Račiukaitis, Gediminas. Thu . "Laser lift-off scribing of the CZTSe thin-film solar cells at different pulse durations". United States. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2017.01.074. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1360670.
@article{osti_1360670,
title = {Laser lift-off scribing of the CZTSe thin-film solar cells at different pulse durations},
author = {Markauskas, Edgaras and Gečys, Paulius and Repins, Ingrid and Beall, Carolyn and Račiukaitis, Gediminas},
abstractNote = {Here, the transition to fully sized solar modules requires additional three-step laser structuring processes to preserve small-scale cell efficiencies over the large areas. The adjacent cell isolation (the P3 scribe) was found to be the most sensitive process in the case of laser induced damage. The laser induced layer lift-off mechanism seems to be a very attractive process for the P3 patterning, since almost all the laser affected material is removed by mechanical spallation. However, a laser induced layer spallation behavior together with scribe electrical validation under the different laser pulse durations was not investigated extensively in the past. Therefore, we report our novel results on the P2 and P3 laser lift-off processing of the Cu2ZnSn(S, Se4) (CZTSe) thin-film solar cells covering the pulse duration range from 300 fs to 60 ps. Shorter sub-ps pulses enabled us to process smaller P2 and P3 craters, although the lift-off threshold fluences were higher compared to the longer ps pulses. In the case of the layer lift-off, the laser radiation had to penetrate through the layer stack down to the CZTSe/Mo interface. At shorter sub-ps pulses, the nonlinear effects triggered absorption of the laser radiation in the bulk of the material, resulting in increased damage of the CZTSe layer. The Raman measurements confirmed the CZTSe surface stoichiometry changes for shorter pulses. Furthermore, shorter pulses induced higher electrical conductivity of a scribe, resulting in lower photo-electrical efficiency during the mini-module simulation. In the case of the P3 lift-off scribing, the 10 ps pulses were more favorable than shorter femtosecond pulses.},
doi = {10.1016/j.solener.2017.01.074},
journal = {Solar Energy},
number = C,
volume = 150,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Apr 27 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Apr 27 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • This project is focussed on a study of wavelength-dependent effects and pulse-duration effects on laser scribing of polycrystalline thin-film PV materials. The materials studied here are CdTe, CI(G)S, SnO{sub 2}, ZnO, molybdenum and gold. This paper provides a summary of thresholds and optimum scribing energy densities for two types of Nd:YAG lasers, a 308 nm excimer laser, and a copper vapor laser. A comparison is presented of glass-side vs. film-side scribing. Discussion is also given of scribing of multilayer films such as ZnO/CIS/moly and gold/CdTe/SnO{sub 2}. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
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