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Title: Final Scientific/Technical Report for "Nanite" for Better Well-Bore Integrity and Zonal Isolation

Abstract

Nanite™ is a cementitious material that contains a proprietary formulation of functionalized nanomaterial additive to transform conventional cement into a smart material responsive to pressure (or stress), temperature, and any intrinsic changes in composition. This project has identified optimal sensing modalities of smart well cement and demonstrated how real-time sensing of Nanite™ can improve long-term wellbore integrity and zonal isolation in shale gas and applicable oil and gas operations. Oceanit has explored Nanite’s electrical sensing properties in depth and has advanced the technology from laboratory proof-of-concept to sub-scale testing in preparation for field trials.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oceanit Laboratories, Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Oil and Natural Gas (FE-30)
OSTI Identifier:
1360661
Report Number(s):
DE-FE0014144
DOE Contract Number:
FE0014144
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Veedu, Vinod, Hadmack, Michael, Pollock, Jacob, Pernambuco-Wise, Paul, and Ah Yo, Derek. Final Scientific/Technical Report for "Nanite" for Better Well-Bore Integrity and Zonal Isolation. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1360661.
Veedu, Vinod, Hadmack, Michael, Pollock, Jacob, Pernambuco-Wise, Paul, & Ah Yo, Derek. Final Scientific/Technical Report for "Nanite" for Better Well-Bore Integrity and Zonal Isolation. United States. doi:10.2172/1360661.
Veedu, Vinod, Hadmack, Michael, Pollock, Jacob, Pernambuco-Wise, Paul, and Ah Yo, Derek. Tue . "Final Scientific/Technical Report for "Nanite" for Better Well-Bore Integrity and Zonal Isolation". United States. doi:10.2172/1360661. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1360661.
@article{osti_1360661,
title = {Final Scientific/Technical Report for "Nanite" for Better Well-Bore Integrity and Zonal Isolation},
author = {Veedu, Vinod and Hadmack, Michael and Pollock, Jacob and Pernambuco-Wise, Paul and Ah Yo, Derek},
abstractNote = {Nanite™ is a cementitious material that contains a proprietary formulation of functionalized nanomaterial additive to transform conventional cement into a smart material responsive to pressure (or stress), temperature, and any intrinsic changes in composition. This project has identified optimal sensing modalities of smart well cement and demonstrated how real-time sensing of Nanite™ can improve long-term wellbore integrity and zonal isolation in shale gas and applicable oil and gas operations. Oceanit has explored Nanite’s electrical sensing properties in depth and has advanced the technology from laboratory proof-of-concept to sub-scale testing in preparation for field trials.},
doi = {10.2172/1360661},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue May 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Main results are summarized for work in these areas: spectrally-invariant approximation within atmospheric radiative transfer; spectral invariance of single scattering albedo for water droplets and ice crystals at weakly absorbing wavelengths; seasonal changes in leaf area of Amazon forests from leaf flushing and abscission; and Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements.
  • Information related to the effects of suspended solids and, to some extent, vapor bubbles on injection well performance is presented. The means of evaluating the tolerable amounts of solids in injected water are presented, and all necessary derivations, equations, test procedures and correlations are explicitly described. Methods of determining whether surface filtration of solids, deep bed filtration of solids, or solids pass-through occurs in the well, and two sets of correlation parameters are presented. An injection well typical of those expected in Gulf Coast geopressured energy recovery systems is described, and optimium injection tubing sizes are calculated. It is concludedmore » that the predominant sources of suspended solids in a system not containing atmospheric, uncovered ponds will be corrosion products and scale particles. Trace oxygen causes a devastating type of pitting corrosion. A technique is used to simulate injection well performance and provides data which illustrate the danger of injecting waters which contain finely divided, flocced solids, and demonstrates that injection problems caused by rigid particulates in the low micron size range will be minimal if the process system is designed to produce and handle treated injection water containing specified limits of particulate content, size, and texture. The effects of well damage over a wide range of conditions is presented in a graph which demonstrates that continuous invasion of the reservoir by trappable particulates should be avoided. (JGB)« less
  • The U.S. Department of Energy is leading the development of alternative energy sources that will ensure the long-term energy independence of our nation. One key renewable resource being advanced is geothermal energy which offers an environmentally benign, reliable source of energy for the nation. To utilize this resource, water will be introduced into wells 3 to 10 km deep to create a geothermal reservoir. This approach is known as an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). The high temperatures and pressures at these depths have become a limiting factor in the development of this energy source. For example, reliable zonal isolation formore » high-temperature applications at high differential pressures is needed to conduct mini-fracs and other stress state diagnostics. Zonal isolation is essential for many EGS reservoir development activities. To date, the capability has not been sufficiently demonstrated to isolate sections of the wellbore to: 1) enable stimulation; and 2) seal off unwanted flow regions in unknown EGS completion schemes and high-temperature (>200°C) environments. In addition, packers and other zonal isolation tools are required to eliminate fluid loss, to help identify and mitigate short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers, and to target individual fractures or fracture networks for testing and validating reservoir models. General-purpose open-hole packers do not exist for geothermal environments, with the primary barrier being the poor stability of elastomeric seals at high temperature above 175°C. Experimental packer systems have been developed for geothermal environments but they currently only operate at low pressure, they are not retrievable, and they are not commercially available. The development of the high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) zonal isolation device would provide the geothermal community with the capability to conduct mini-fracs, eliminate fluid loss, to help identify and mitigate short circuiting of flow from injectors to producers, and to target individual fractures or fracture networks for testing and validating reservoir models. The goal of this program, therefore, was to develop and demonstrate reliable high-temperature high-pressure zonal isolation devices that are compatible with the high-temperature downhole environment anticipated for Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Over the course of this 3 year program, CTD designed and demonstrated a high temperature high pressure zonal isolation device. CTD has utilized its expertise in high-temperature materials, shape memory composites and foams, and deployment mechanisms for spacecraft and oil tools to develop a new class of HTHP zonal isolation devices for use in EGS. Specifically, the objective was to demonstrate the ability to isolate sections of an EGS wellbore to: 1) enable stimulation; and 2) seal off unwanted flow regions in unknown EGS completion schemes and high-temperature (>200°C) environments at temperatures upwards of 300°C. A concept for a high-temperature, high-pressure zonal isolation device was designed for use in creating circulation paths in environments where temperatures are in excess of 300°C and differential pressures of up to 10,000 psi are required to stimulate solid granite. This new zonal isolation device distributes the high-pressure differential through a significant length of high temperature, shape memory polymer composite material. The development of differential pressure is initiated by a thermally triggered actuation of a ‘structural seal’ that fills the cross section of the bore with the shape memory material. After this preliminary seal is made, differential pressure begins to build through the material as the seal forces the flow to pass through pores in the shape memory material. The shape memory material is compressed into place to react the force of the internal« less
  • Zonal isolation in geothermal injection and producing wells is important while drilling the wells when highly fractured geothermal zones are encountered and there is a need to keep the fluids from interfering with the drilling operation. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) objectives are to advance technologies to make it more cost effective to develop, produce, and monitor geothermal reservoirs and produce geothermal energy. Thus, zonal isolation is critical to well cost, reservoir evaluation and operations. Traditional cementing off of the lost circulation or thief zones during drilling is often done to stem the drilling mudmore » losses. This is an expensive and generally unsuccessful technique losing the potential of the remaining fracture system. Selective placement of strong SPI gels into only the offending fractures can maintain and even improve operational efficiency and resource life. The SPI gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a promising solution to thief zones and conformance problems with water and CO2 floods and potentially geothermal operations. This gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an initiator (either internal such as an additive or external such as CO2) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current mechanical methods of using packers, plugs, liners and cementing technologies that often severely damage the highly fractured area that is isolated. In the SPI gels, the initiator sets up the fluid into a water-like (not a precipitate) gel and when the isolated zone needs to be reopened, the SPI gel may be removed with an alkaline solution without formation damage occurring. In addition, the SPI gel in commercial quantities is expected to be less expensive than competing mechanical systems and has unique deep placement possibilities. This project seeks to improve upon the SPI gel integrity by modifying the various components to impart temperature stability for use in geothermal.« less