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Title: Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

Abstract

Over the last 1.5 years, GE Global Research and Pennsylvania State University defined a model-based, scalable, and multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, optionally, salt. The team explored saline brines that ranged across the expected range for extracted water for carbon sequestration reservoirs (40,000 up to 220,000 ppm total dissolved solids, TDS). In addition, the validated the system performance at pilot scale with field-sourced water using GE’s pre-pilot and lab facilities. This project encompassed four principal tasks, in addition to Project Management and Planning: 1) identify a deep saline formation carbon sequestration site and a partner that are suitable for supplying extracted water; 2) conduct a techno-economic assessment and down-selection of pre-treatment and desalination technologies to identify a cost-effective system for extracted water recovery; 3) validate the downselected processes at the lab/pre-pilot scale; and 4) define the scope of the pilot desalination project. Highlights from each task are described below: Deep saline formation characterization The deep saline formations associated with the five DOE NETL 1260 Phase 1 projects were characterized with respect to their mineralogy and formation water composition. Sources of high TDS feed water other than extracted water were explored for high TDSmore » desalination applications, including unconventional oil and gas and seawater reverse osmosis concentrate. Technoeconomic analysis of desalination technologies Techno-economic evaluations of alternate brine concentration technologies, including humidification-dehumidification (HDH), membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), turboexpander-freeze, solvent extraction and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO), were conducted. These technologies were evaluated against conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) as a baseline desalination process. Furthermore, a quality function deployment (QFD) method was used to compare alternate high TDS desalination technologies to FF-MVR. High pressure reverse osmosis was found to a be a promising alternative desalination technology. A deep-dive technoeconomic analysis of HPRO was performed, including Capex and Opex estimates, for seawater RO (SWRO). Additionally, two additional cases were explored: 1) a comparison of a SWRO plus HPRO system to the option of doubling the size of a standard seawater RO system to achieve the same total pure water recovery rate; and 2) a flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) application, where preconcentration with RO (SWRO or SWRO + HPRO) before evaporation and crystallization was compared to FF-MVR and crystallization technologies without RO preconcentration. Pre-pilot process validation Pre-pilot-scale tests were conducted using field production water to validate key process steps for extracted water pretreatment. Approximately 5,000 gallons of field produced water was processed through, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and steam regenerable sorbent operations. Smaller quantities were processed through microclarification. In addition, analytical methods (purge-and-trap gas chromatography and Hach TOC analytical methods) were validated. Lab-scale HPRO elements were constructed and tested at high pressures, to identify and mitigate technical risks of the technology. Lastly, improvements in RO membrane materials were identified as the necessary next step to achieve further improvement in element performance at high pressure. Scope of Field Pilot A field pilot for extracted water pretreatment was designed.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)
  2. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1360630
Report Number(s):
DOE-GE-FE0026308
DOE Contract Number:
FE0026308
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; extracted water treatment; desalination; reverse osmosis; carbon capture and sequestration; pretreatment; water reuse

Citation Formats

Dees, Elizabeth M., Moore, David Roger, Li, Li, and Kumar, Manish. Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1360630.
Dees, Elizabeth M., Moore, David Roger, Li, Li, & Kumar, Manish. Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration. United States. doi:10.2172/1360630.
Dees, Elizabeth M., Moore, David Roger, Li, Li, and Kumar, Manish. Sun . "Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration". United States. doi:10.2172/1360630. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1360630.
@article{osti_1360630,
title = {Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration},
author = {Dees, Elizabeth M. and Moore, David Roger and Li, Li and Kumar, Manish},
abstractNote = {Over the last 1.5 years, GE Global Research and Pennsylvania State University defined a model-based, scalable, and multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, optionally, salt. The team explored saline brines that ranged across the expected range for extracted water for carbon sequestration reservoirs (40,000 up to 220,000 ppm total dissolved solids, TDS). In addition, the validated the system performance at pilot scale with field-sourced water using GE’s pre-pilot and lab facilities. This project encompassed four principal tasks, in addition to Project Management and Planning: 1) identify a deep saline formation carbon sequestration site and a partner that are suitable for supplying extracted water; 2) conduct a techno-economic assessment and down-selection of pre-treatment and desalination technologies to identify a cost-effective system for extracted water recovery; 3) validate the downselected processes at the lab/pre-pilot scale; and 4) define the scope of the pilot desalination project. Highlights from each task are described below: Deep saline formation characterization The deep saline formations associated with the five DOE NETL 1260 Phase 1 projects were characterized with respect to their mineralogy and formation water composition. Sources of high TDS feed water other than extracted water were explored for high TDS desalination applications, including unconventional oil and gas and seawater reverse osmosis concentrate. Technoeconomic analysis of desalination technologies Techno-economic evaluations of alternate brine concentration technologies, including humidification-dehumidification (HDH), membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), turboexpander-freeze, solvent extraction and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO), were conducted. These technologies were evaluated against conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) as a baseline desalination process. Furthermore, a quality function deployment (QFD) method was used to compare alternate high TDS desalination technologies to FF-MVR. High pressure reverse osmosis was found to a be a promising alternative desalination technology. A deep-dive technoeconomic analysis of HPRO was performed, including Capex and Opex estimates, for seawater RO (SWRO). Additionally, two additional cases were explored: 1) a comparison of a SWRO plus HPRO system to the option of doubling the size of a standard seawater RO system to achieve the same total pure water recovery rate; and 2) a flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment zero-liquid discharge (ZLD) application, where preconcentration with RO (SWRO or SWRO + HPRO) before evaporation and crystallization was compared to FF-MVR and crystallization technologies without RO preconcentration. Pre-pilot process validation Pre-pilot-scale tests were conducted using field production water to validate key process steps for extracted water pretreatment. Approximately 5,000 gallons of field produced water was processed through, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and steam regenerable sorbent operations. Smaller quantities were processed through microclarification. In addition, analytical methods (purge-and-trap gas chromatography and Hach TOC analytical methods) were validated. Lab-scale HPRO elements were constructed and tested at high pressures, to identify and mitigate technical risks of the technology. Lastly, improvements in RO membrane materials were identified as the necessary next step to achieve further improvement in element performance at high pressure. Scope of Field Pilot A field pilot for extracted water pretreatment was designed.},
doi = {10.2172/1360630},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun May 28 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sun May 28 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The focus of this research effort centered around water recovery from high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) extracted waters (180,000 mg/L) using a combination of water recovery (partial desalination) technologies. The research goals of this project were as follows: 1. Define the scope and test location for pilot-scale implementation of the desalination system, 2.Define a scalable, multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, salt from saline brines, and 3. Validate overall system performance with field-sourced water using GE pre-pilot lab facilities. Conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) technology was established as a baseline desalination process. Amore » quality function deployment (QFD) method was used to compare alternate high TDS desalination technologies to the base case FF-MVR technology, including but not limited to: membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO). Technoeconomic analysis of high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) was performed comparing the following two cases: 1. a hybrid seawater RO (SWRO) plus HPRO system and 2. 2x standard seawater RO system, to achieve the same total pure water recovery rate. Pre-pilot-scale tests were conducted using field production water to validate key process steps for extracted water pretreatment. Approximately 5,000 gallons of field produced water was processed through, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and steam regenerable sorbent operations. Improvements in membrane materials of construction were considered as necessary next steps to achieving further improvement in element performance at high pressure. Several modifications showed promising results in their ability to withstand close to 5,000 PSI without gross failure.« less
  • Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existingmore » natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.« less
  • The purpose of this project was to characterize existing carbon capture and sequestration technologies at a high level, develop an analytical framework to help assess the technologies, and implement the framework in a system dynamics model. The first year of this project succeeded in characterizing existing technologies to help focus the analysis on power plants. The assessment also helped determine which technologies are largely accepted by the carbon capture research community as relatively proven technologies, discuss the salient performance metrics, and assess the associated economics. With this information, an analytical framework was developed to assess the technologies from a systemsmore » view perspective. With this framework, the Carbon Sequestration and Risk Model (CSR) was developed to assess performance and economic risk issues as they relate to global atmospheric CO2 concentration goals and single plant scale projects to characterize the economics of these systems.« less
  • The Water, Energy, and Carbon Sequestration Simulation Model (WECSsim) is a national dynamic simulation model that calculates and assesses capturing, transporting, and storing CO 2 in deep saline formations from all coal and natural gas-fired power plants in the U.S. An overarching capability of WECSsim is to also account for simultaneous CO 2 injection and water extraction within the same geological saline formation. Extracting, treating, and using these saline waters to cool the power plant is one way to develop more value from using saline formations as CO 2 storage locations. WECSsim allows for both one-to-one comparisons of a singlemore » power plant to a single saline formation along with the ability to develop a national CO 2 storage supply curve and related national assessments for these formations. This report summarizes the scope, structure, and methodology of WECSsim along with a few key results. Developing WECSsim from a small scoping study to the full national-scale modeling effort took approximately 5 years. This report represents the culmination of that effort. The key findings from the WECSsim model indicate the U.S. has several decades' worth of storage for CO 2 in saline formations when managed appropriately. Competition for subsurface storage capacity, intrastate flows of CO 2 and water, and a supportive regulatory environment all play a key role as to the performance and cost profile across the range from a single power plant to all coal and natural gas-based plants' ability to store CO 2. The overall system's cost to capture, transport, and store CO 2 for the national assessment range from $74 to $208 / tonne stored ($96 to 272 / tonne avoided) for the first 25 to 50% of the 1126 power plants to between $1,585 to well beyond $2,000 / tonne stored ($2,040 to well beyond $2,000 / tonne avoided) for the remaining 75 to 100% of the plants. The latter range, while extremely large, includes all natural gas power plants in the U.S., many of which have an extremely low capacity factor and therefore relatively high system's cost to capture and store CO 2.« less
  • This white paper accompanies a demonstration model that implements methods for the risk-informed design of monitoring, verification and accounting (RI-MVA) systems in geologic carbon sequestration projects. The intent is that this model will ultimately be integrated with, or interfaced with, the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) integrated assessment model (IAM). The RI-MVA methods described here apply optimization techniques in the analytical environment of NRAP risk profiles to allow systematic identification and comparison of the risk and cost attributes of MVA design options.