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Title: Precursor evolution and SCC initiation of cold-worked alloy 690 in simulated PWR primary water

Abstract

Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for the 21% and 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 h, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showed DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400h exposure at constant stress intensity, which resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Interestingly, post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and will discuss their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1358515
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-121146
Journal ID: ISSN 0010--9312; 49159; 830403000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: CORROSION 2017, March 29-30, 2017, New Orleans, Louisiana, Paper No. NACE-2017-9475
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
intergranular stress corrosion cracking; crack initiation; alloy 690; cold work; creep cavities; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Zhai, Ziqing, Kruska, Karen, Toloczko, Mychailo B., and Bruemmer, Stephen M. Precursor evolution and SCC initiation of cold-worked alloy 690 in simulated PWR primary water. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.5006/2470.
Zhai, Ziqing, Kruska, Karen, Toloczko, Mychailo B., & Bruemmer, Stephen M. Precursor evolution and SCC initiation of cold-worked alloy 690 in simulated PWR primary water. United States. doi:10.5006/2470.
Zhai, Ziqing, Kruska, Karen, Toloczko, Mychailo B., and Bruemmer, Stephen M. Mon . "Precursor evolution and SCC initiation of cold-worked alloy 690 in simulated PWR primary water". United States. doi:10.5006/2470.
@article{osti_1358515,
title = {Precursor evolution and SCC initiation of cold-worked alloy 690 in simulated PWR primary water},
author = {Zhai, Ziqing and Kruska, Karen and Toloczko, Mychailo B. and Bruemmer, Stephen M.},
abstractNote = {Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for the 21% and 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 h, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showed DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400h exposure at constant stress intensity, which resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Interestingly, post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and will discuss their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.},
doi = {10.5006/2470},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 27 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Mar 27 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • Stress corrosion crack initiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 (UNS N06690) materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for either the 21% or 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 hours, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showedmore » DCPD-indicated crack initiation after 10,400 hours of exposure at constant stress intensity, which was resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and discusses their effects on crack initiation in CW alloy 690.« less
  • Due to its superior resistance to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC), high Cr, Ni-base Alloy 690 is now commonly used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Even though highly cold-worked (CW) Alloy 690 has been shown to be susceptible to SCC crack growth in PWR primary water environments, an open question remains whether SCC initiation was possible for these materials under constant load test conditions. Testing has been performed on a series of CW alloy 690 CRDM tubing specimens at constant load for up to 9,220 hours in 360°C simulated PWR primary water. A companion paper will discuss the overallmore » testing approach and describe results on different alloy 690 heats and cold work levels. The focus of the current paper is to illustrate the use of focused ion beam (FIB), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the high-resolution investigation of precursor damage and intergranular (IG) crack nucleation in these specimens. Three-dimensional (3D) FIB/SEM imaging has been conducted on a series of grain boundary (GB) damage precursors, such as IG small cavities, local corrosion and even shallow cracks observed at the specimen surface. Contrast variations and EDS mapping were used to distinguish oxides, carbides and cavities from the matrix material. Nanometer-sized cavities were observed associated with GB carbides in the highly CW specimens. Shallow IG cracks were present in the 30%CW specimens and exhibited oxidized crack flanks and a higher density of cavities ahead of the oxide front in all cases. The shape and distribution of carbides and cavities in the plane of the cracked GBs was analyzed in 3D to gain a mechanistic understanding of the processes that may be leading to crack initiation in highly CW alloy 690.« less
  • The stress corrosion crack growth response of three extruded alloy 690 CRDM tube heats was investigated in several thermomechanical conditions. Extremely low propagation rates (< 1 x 10{sup -9} mm/s) were observed under constant stress intensity factor (K) loading at 325-350 C in the as-received, thermally treated (TT) materials despite using a variety of transitioning techniques. Post-test observation of the crack-growth surfaces revealed only isolated intergranular (IG) cracking. One-dimensional cold rolling to 17% reduction and testing in the S-L orientation did not promote enhanced stress corrosion rates. However, somewhat higher propagation rates were observed in a 30% cold-rolled alloy 690TTmore » specimen tested in the T-L orientation. Cracking of the cold-rolled material was promoted on grain boundaries oriented parallel to the rolling plane with the % IG increasing with the amount of cold rolling.« less
  • Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. Formore » the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.« less
  • There is considerable interest in the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels in low electrochemical potential (ECP), light water reactor (LWR) environments. Crack growth measurements are presented for ~20% cold-worked, 316 and 316L stainless steels tested in 288°C high-purity water under oxidizing (2000 ppb O2) and hydrogen water chemistry (74-1560 ppb H2) conditions. High SCC crack-growth rates of ~1x10-7 mm/s at constant K were observed in one heat at low ECP, hydrogen water chemistry conditions. Crack morphologies for this heat were mixed intergranular (IG) and transgranular (TG) for all environments but with less TG cracking at themore » lowest K level tested. Comparisons made to a larger set of data on cold-worked stainless steels indicate that the SCC crack-growth rates from PNNL on this heat are at the high end of test data under low ECP, LWR conditions. Possible reasons for the higher observed SCC propagation rates in the cold-worked 316LSS heat are discussed.« less