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Title: Dust-wind interactions can intensify aerosol pollution over eastern China

Abstract

Eastern China has experienced severe and persistent winter haze episodes in recent years due to intensification of aerosol pollution, which has adverse impacts on hundreds of millions of people across China1–4. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, the winter aerosol pollution over eastern China is associated with abnormal meteorological conditions, including weaker wind speeds5–9. Using a global climate model and a chemical transport model, we show that variations in dust emissions decrease the wintertime land-sea surface air temperature difference between eastern China and the South China Sea and weaken winds below the lowest 10th percentile of wind speed by 0.06 m s-1. Here, the weakened winds enhance stagnation and account for 13% of the increases in PM2.5 aerosol concentrations over eastern China. Although recent increases in anthropogenic emissions are the main factor causing haze over eastern China, we conclude that natural emissions also exert a significant influence on the increases in wintertime PM2.5 concentrations, with important implications that should be considered in air quality studies.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [5];  [5]
  1. Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  3. Nanjing Univ. of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing (China)
  4. Chinese Academy of Meteorological Science, Beijing (China)
  5. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1358504
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-119019
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723; KP1703010
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-1723
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; atmospheric chemistry; atmospheric dynamics

Citation Formats

Yang, Yang, Russell, Lynn M., Lou, Sijia, Liao, Hong, Guo, Jianping, Liu, Ying, Singh, Balwinder, and Ghan, Steven J.. Dust-wind interactions can intensify aerosol pollution over eastern China. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/ncomms15333.
Yang, Yang, Russell, Lynn M., Lou, Sijia, Liao, Hong, Guo, Jianping, Liu, Ying, Singh, Balwinder, & Ghan, Steven J.. Dust-wind interactions can intensify aerosol pollution over eastern China. United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms15333.
Yang, Yang, Russell, Lynn M., Lou, Sijia, Liao, Hong, Guo, Jianping, Liu, Ying, Singh, Balwinder, and Ghan, Steven J.. Thu . "Dust-wind interactions can intensify aerosol pollution over eastern China". United States. doi:10.1038/ncomms15333. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358504.
@article{osti_1358504,
title = {Dust-wind interactions can intensify aerosol pollution over eastern China},
author = {Yang, Yang and Russell, Lynn M. and Lou, Sijia and Liao, Hong and Guo, Jianping and Liu, Ying and Singh, Balwinder and Ghan, Steven J.},
abstractNote = {Eastern China has experienced severe and persistent winter haze episodes in recent years due to intensification of aerosol pollution, which has adverse impacts on hundreds of millions of people across China1–4. In addition to anthropogenic emissions, the winter aerosol pollution over eastern China is associated with abnormal meteorological conditions, including weaker wind speeds5–9. Using a global climate model and a chemical transport model, we show that variations in dust emissions decrease the wintertime land-sea surface air temperature difference between eastern China and the South China Sea and weaken winds below the lowest 10th percentile of wind speed by 0.06 m s-1. Here, the weakened winds enhance stagnation and account for 13% of the increases in PM2.5 aerosol concentrations over eastern China. Although recent increases in anthropogenic emissions are the main factor causing haze over eastern China, we conclude that natural emissions also exert a significant influence on the increases in wintertime PM2.5 concentrations, with important implications that should be considered in air quality studies.},
doi = {10.1038/ncomms15333},
journal = {Nature Communications},
number = ,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu May 11 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu May 11 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 8works
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  • The increase in winter haze over eastern China in recent decades due to variations in meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions was quantified using observed atmospheric visibility from the National Climatic Data Center Global Summary of Day database for 1980–2014 and simulated PM2.5 concentrations for 1985–2005 from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Observed winter haze days averaged over eastern China (105–122.5°E, 20–45°N) increased from 21 d in 1980 to 42 d in 2014, and from 22 to 30 d between 1985 and 2005. The GEOS-Chem model captured the increasing trend of winter PM2.5 concentrations for 1985–2005,more » with concentrations averaged over eastern China increasing from 16.1 μg m -3 in 1985 to 38.4 μg m -3 in 2005. Considering variations in both anthropogenic emissions and meteorological parameters, the model simulated an increase in winter surface-layer PM2.5 concentrations of 10.5 (±6.2) μg m -3 decade -1 over eastern China. The increasing trend was only 1.8 (±1.5) μg m -3 decade -1 when variations in meteorological parameters alone were considered. Among the meteorological parameters, the weakening of winds by -0.09 m s -1 decade -1 over 1985–2005 was found to be the dominant factor leading to the decadal increase in winter aerosol concentrations and haze days over eastern China during recent decades.« less
  • Rapid economic growth over the last 30 years in China has led to a significant increase in aerosol loading, which is mainly due to the increased emissions of its precursors such as SO 2 and NO x. Here we show that these changes significantly affect wintertime clouds and precipitation over the East China Sea downwind of major emission sources. Satellite observations show an increase of cloud droplet number concentration from less than 200 cm -3 in the 1980s to more than 300 cm -3 in 2005. In the same time period, precipitation frequency reported by voluntary ship observers was reducedmore » from more than 30% to less than 20% of the time. A back trajectory analysis showed the pollution in the investigation area to originate from the Shanghai-Nanjing and Jinan industrial areas. A model sensitivity study was performed, isolating the effects of changes in emissions of the aerosol precursors SO 2 and NO x on clouds and precipitation using a state-of-the-art mesocale model including chemistry and aerosol indirect effects. Similar changes in cloud droplet number concentration over the East China Sea were obtained when the current industrial emissions in China were reduced to the 1980s levels. Simulated changes in precipitation were somewhat smaller than the observed changes but still significant. Citation: Bennartz, R., J. Fan, J. Rausch, L. R. Leung, and A. K. Heidinger (2011), Pollution from China increases cloud droplet number, suppresses rain over the East China Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L09704, doi:10.1029/ 2011GL047235.« less
  • We use 150 year preindustrial simulations of the Community Earth System Model to quantify the impacts of the East Asian Monsoon strength on interannual variations of springtime dust concentrations over China. The simulated interannual variations in March-April-May (MAM) dust column concentrations range between 20–40% and 10–60% over eastern and western China, respectively. The dust concentrations over eastern China correlate negatively with the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) index, which represents the strength of monsoon, with a regionally averaged correlation coefficient of 0.64. Relative to the strongest EAM years, MAMdust concentrations in the weakest EAM years are higher over China, with regionalmore » relative differences of 55.6%, 29.6%, and 13.9% in the run with emissions calculated interactively and of 33.8%, 10.3%, and 8.2% over eastern, central, and western China, respectively, in the run with prescribed emissions. Both interactive run and prescribed emission run show the similar pattern of climate change between the weakest and strongest EAM years. Strong anomalous northwesterly and westerly winds over the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts during the weakest EAM years result in larger transport fluxes, and thereby increase the dust concentrations over China. These differences in dust concentrations between the weakest and strongest EAM years (weakest-strongest) lead to the change in the net radiative forcing by up to 8 and 3Wm2 at the surface, compared to 2.4 and +1.2Wm2 at the top of the atmosphere over eastern and western China, respectively.« less
  • Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a 3 spectral-bin microphysics ('SBM') and measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation 4 Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility field campaign in China (AMF-China), the authors 5 examine aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in the typical cloud regimes of the warm and cold 6 seasons in Southeast China: deep convective clouds (DCC) and stratus clouds (SC), 7 respectively. Comparisons with a two-moment bulk microphysics ('Bulk') are performed 8 to gain insights for improving bulk schemes in estimating AIE in weather and climate 9 simulations. For the first time, measurements of aerosol and cloud propertiesmore » acquired in 10 China are used to evaluate model simulations to better understand AIE in China. It is 11 found that changes in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration significantly 12 change the timing of storms, the spatial and temporal distributions of precipitation, the 13 frequency distribution of precipitation rate, as well as cloud base and top heights for the 14 DCC, but not for the SC. CCN increase cloud droplet number (Nc) and mass 15 concentrations, decrease raindrop number concentration (Nr), and delay the onset of 16 precipitation. It is indicated much higher Nc and the opposite CCN effects on convection 17 and heavy rain with Bulk compared to SBM stem from the fixed CCN prescribed in Bulk. 18 CCN have a significant effect on ice microphysical properties with SBM but not Bulk 19 and different condensation/deposition freezing parameterizations employed could be the 20 main reason. This study provided insights to further improve the bulk scheme to better 21 account for aerosol-cloud interactions in regional and global climate simulations, which 22 will be the focus for a follow-on paper.« less
  • In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, andmore » 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less