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Title: Corrosion of Structural Materials for Advanced Supercritical Carbon- Dioxide Brayton Cycle

Abstract

The supercritical carbon-dioxide (referred to as SC-CO 2 hereon) Brayton cycle is being considered for power conversion systems for a number of nuclear reactor concepts, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR), fluoride saltcooled high temperature reactor (FHR), and high temperature gas reactor (HTGR), and several types of small modular reactors (SMR). The SC-CO 2 direct cycle gas fast reactor has also been recently proposed. The SC-CO 2 Brayton cycle (discussed in Chapter 1) provides higher efficiencies compared to the Rankine steam cycle due to less compression work stemming from higher SC-CO 2 densities, and allows for smaller components size, fewer components, and simpler cycle layout. For example, in the case of a SFR using a SC-CO 2 Brayton cycle instead of a steam cycle would also eliminate the possibility of sodium-water interactions. The SC-CO 2 cycle has a higher efficiency than the helium Brayton cycle, with the additional advantage of being able to operate at lower temperatures and higher pressures. In general, the SC-CO 2 Brayton cycle is well-suited for any type of nuclear reactor (including SMR) with core outlet temperature above ~ 500°C in either direct or indirect versions. In all the above applications, materials corrosion in high temperaturemore » SC-CO 2 is an important consideration, given their expected lifetimes of 20 years or longer. Our discussions with National Laboratories and private industry early on in this project indicated materials corrosion to be one of the significant gaps in the implementation of SC-CO 2 Brayton cycle. Corrosion can lead to a loss of effective load-bearing wall thickness of a component and can potentially lead to the generation of oxide particulate debris which can lead to three-body wear in turbomachinery components. Another environmental degradation effect that is rather unique to CO 2 environment is the possibility for simultaneous occurrence of carburization during oxidation of the material. Carburization can potentially lead to embrittlement of structural alloys in SC-CO 2 Brayton cycle. An important consideration in regards to corrosion is that the temperatures can vary widely across the various sections of the SC-CO 2 Brayton cycle, from room temperature to 750°C, with even higher temperatures being desirable for higher efficiencies. Thus the extent of corrosion and corrosion mechanisms in various components and SC-CO 2 Brayton cycle will be different, requiring a judicious selection of materials for different sections of the cycle. The goal of this project was to address materials corrosion-related challenges, identify appropriate materials, and advance the body of scientific knowledge in the area of high temperature SC-CO 2 corrosion. The focus was on corrosion of materials in SC-CO 2 environment in the temperature range of 450°C to 750°C at a pressure of 2900 psi for exposure duration for up to 1000 hours. The Table below lists the materials tested in the project. The materials were selected based on their high temperature strength, their code certification status, commercial availabilities, and their prior or current usage in the nuclear reactor industry. Additionally, pure Fe, Fe-12%Cr, and Ni-22%Cr were investigated as simple model materials to more clearly understand corrosion mechanisms. This first phase of the project involved testing in research grade SC-CO 2 (99.999% purity). Specially designed autoclaves with high fidelity temperature, pressure, and flow control capabilities were built or modified for this project.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1358349
Report Number(s):
13-4900
13-4900
DOE Contract Number:  
NE0000677
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Sridharan, Kumar. Corrosion of Structural Materials for Advanced Supercritical Carbon- Dioxide Brayton Cycle. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1358349.
Sridharan, Kumar. Corrosion of Structural Materials for Advanced Supercritical Carbon- Dioxide Brayton Cycle. United States. doi:10.2172/1358349.
Sridharan, Kumar. Sat . "Corrosion of Structural Materials for Advanced Supercritical Carbon- Dioxide Brayton Cycle". United States. doi:10.2172/1358349. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358349.
@article{osti_1358349,
title = {Corrosion of Structural Materials for Advanced Supercritical Carbon- Dioxide Brayton Cycle},
author = {Sridharan, Kumar},
abstractNote = {The supercritical carbon-dioxide (referred to as SC-CO2 hereon) Brayton cycle is being considered for power conversion systems for a number of nuclear reactor concepts, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR), fluoride saltcooled high temperature reactor (FHR), and high temperature gas reactor (HTGR), and several types of small modular reactors (SMR). The SC-CO2 direct cycle gas fast reactor has also been recently proposed. The SC-CO2 Brayton cycle (discussed in Chapter 1) provides higher efficiencies compared to the Rankine steam cycle due to less compression work stemming from higher SC-CO2 densities, and allows for smaller components size, fewer components, and simpler cycle layout. For example, in the case of a SFR using a SC-CO2 Brayton cycle instead of a steam cycle would also eliminate the possibility of sodium-water interactions. The SC-CO2 cycle has a higher efficiency than the helium Brayton cycle, with the additional advantage of being able to operate at lower temperatures and higher pressures. In general, the SC-CO2 Brayton cycle is well-suited for any type of nuclear reactor (including SMR) with core outlet temperature above ~ 500°C in either direct or indirect versions. In all the above applications, materials corrosion in high temperature SC-CO2 is an important consideration, given their expected lifetimes of 20 years or longer. Our discussions with National Laboratories and private industry early on in this project indicated materials corrosion to be one of the significant gaps in the implementation of SC-CO2 Brayton cycle. Corrosion can lead to a loss of effective load-bearing wall thickness of a component and can potentially lead to the generation of oxide particulate debris which can lead to three-body wear in turbomachinery components. Another environmental degradation effect that is rather unique to CO2 environment is the possibility for simultaneous occurrence of carburization during oxidation of the material. Carburization can potentially lead to embrittlement of structural alloys in SC-CO2 Brayton cycle. An important consideration in regards to corrosion is that the temperatures can vary widely across the various sections of the SC-CO2 Brayton cycle, from room temperature to 750°C, with even higher temperatures being desirable for higher efficiencies. Thus the extent of corrosion and corrosion mechanisms in various components and SC-CO2 Brayton cycle will be different, requiring a judicious selection of materials for different sections of the cycle. The goal of this project was to address materials corrosion-related challenges, identify appropriate materials, and advance the body of scientific knowledge in the area of high temperature SC-CO2 corrosion. The focus was on corrosion of materials in SC-CO2 environment in the temperature range of 450°C to 750°C at a pressure of 2900 psi for exposure duration for up to 1000 hours. The Table below lists the materials tested in the project. The materials were selected based on their high temperature strength, their code certification status, commercial availabilities, and their prior or current usage in the nuclear reactor industry. Additionally, pure Fe, Fe-12%Cr, and Ni-22%Cr were investigated as simple model materials to more clearly understand corrosion mechanisms. This first phase of the project involved testing in research grade SC-CO2 (99.999% purity). Specially designed autoclaves with high fidelity temperature, pressure, and flow control capabilities were built or modified for this project.},
doi = {10.2172/1358349},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat May 13 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat May 13 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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