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Title: Miscible blends of biobased poly(lactide) with poly(methyl methacrylate): Effects of chopped glass fiber incorporation

Abstract

Poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are melt compounded with chopped glass fiber using laboratory scale twin-screw extrusion. Physical properties are examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile testing, impact testing, X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Molecular weight is determined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Miscibility of the blends is implied by the presence of a single glass transition temperature and homogeneous morphology. PLA/PMMA blends tend to show positive deviations from a simple linear mixing rule in their mechanical properties (e.g., tensile toughness, modulus, and stress at break). The addition of 40 wt % glass fiber to the system dramatically increases physical properties. Across all blend compositions, the tensile modulus increases from roughly 3 GPa to roughly 10 GPa. Estimated heat distortion temperatures (HDTs) are also greatly enhanced; the pure PLA sample HDT increases from 75 degrees C to 135 degrees C. Fiber filled polymer blends represent a sustainable class of earth abundant materials which should prove useful across a range of applications.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [1]
  1. Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden Colorado 80401
  2. Arkema, King of Prussia Pennsylvania
  3. Johns Manville, Littleton Colorado
  4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1358344
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-68547
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8995
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Polymer Science; Journal Volume: 134; Journal Issue: 22
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; biopolymers and renewable polymers; blends; composites; mechanical properties; thermoplastics

Citation Formats

Cousins, Dylan S., Lowe, Corinne, Swan, Dana, Barsotti, Robert, Zhang, Mingfu, Gleich, Klaus, Berry, Derek, Snowberg, David, and Dorgan, John R.. Miscible blends of biobased poly(lactide) with poly(methyl methacrylate): Effects of chopped glass fiber incorporation. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/app.44868.
Cousins, Dylan S., Lowe, Corinne, Swan, Dana, Barsotti, Robert, Zhang, Mingfu, Gleich, Klaus, Berry, Derek, Snowberg, David, & Dorgan, John R.. Miscible blends of biobased poly(lactide) with poly(methyl methacrylate): Effects of chopped glass fiber incorporation. United States. doi:10.1002/app.44868.
Cousins, Dylan S., Lowe, Corinne, Swan, Dana, Barsotti, Robert, Zhang, Mingfu, Gleich, Klaus, Berry, Derek, Snowberg, David, and Dorgan, John R.. Wed . "Miscible blends of biobased poly(lactide) with poly(methyl methacrylate): Effects of chopped glass fiber incorporation". United States. doi:10.1002/app.44868.
@article{osti_1358344,
title = {Miscible blends of biobased poly(lactide) with poly(methyl methacrylate): Effects of chopped glass fiber incorporation},
author = {Cousins, Dylan S. and Lowe, Corinne and Swan, Dana and Barsotti, Robert and Zhang, Mingfu and Gleich, Klaus and Berry, Derek and Snowberg, David and Dorgan, John R.},
abstractNote = {Poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are melt compounded with chopped glass fiber using laboratory scale twin-screw extrusion. Physical properties are examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile testing, impact testing, X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning, and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Molecular weight is determined using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Miscibility of the blends is implied by the presence of a single glass transition temperature and homogeneous morphology. PLA/PMMA blends tend to show positive deviations from a simple linear mixing rule in their mechanical properties (e.g., tensile toughness, modulus, and stress at break). The addition of 40 wt % glass fiber to the system dramatically increases physical properties. Across all blend compositions, the tensile modulus increases from roughly 3 GPa to roughly 10 GPa. Estimated heat distortion temperatures (HDTs) are also greatly enhanced; the pure PLA sample HDT increases from 75 degrees C to 135 degrees C. Fiber filled polymer blends represent a sustainable class of earth abundant materials which should prove useful across a range of applications.},
doi = {10.1002/app.44868},
journal = {Journal of Applied Polymer Science},
number = 22,
volume = 134,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 22 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 22 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Banded spherulites of pure poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) were observed via the 'crystallization after annealing' procedure, while only common spherulites were obtained via the 'direct isothermal crystallization' procedure. Wide angle X-ray diffraction revealed that the two types of spherulites had the same crystal lattice of a-modification. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the alternative negative and positive birefringent bands resulted from the alternative edge-on and flat-on lamellar orientations in the spherulites. Furthermore, the effect of thermal history on the spherulitic morphology was investigated in details. The PLLA samples melted for longer time or those with lower melting point were more likely to formmore » banded spherulites. The possibility that the change of molecular weight was a determining factor of banding was excluded by the results on differently prepared samples with the same molecular weight. Therefore, we conclude that it was complete melting of the crystalline residues that favored formation of PLLA banded spherulites. Blending of PLLA with atactic poly(d, l-lactide) or poly[(R, S)-3-hydroxybutyrate], led to reduced band spacing. Effect of blending on the chain mobility, spherulite growth kinetics, supercooling and lamellar surface energy was quantitatively studied, which suggests that the blending-reduced band spacing cannot be attributed to the above factors. Therefore, there are other blending-relevant factors leading to the reduced band spacing.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • The sensitivity to radiation of mixtures of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene-co-acrylonitrile (SAN) was studied over the entire range of composition. Polystyrene-co-acrylonitrile, like polystyrene, is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, having a small G/sub x/ value for crosslinking (0.077) and an even smaller G/sub s/ value for main chain scission (0.055). In contrast, PMMA degrades readily under irradiation (with G/sub s/ = 1.2). In ..gamma..-irradiated blends, the behavior of each polymer is largely influenced by the presence of the other component. Gel formation in SAN is impeded by PMMA, as a result of a decrease in G/sub x/, and amore » concomitant increase in the ratio G/sub s//G/sub x/. Flexural strength measurements, along with molecular weight determinations by gel permeation chromatography, demonstrated that SAN had a market protective effect on PMMA by decreasing G/sub s/ (chain scission). This protective effect was not observed in earlier experiments with PMMA-PS blends, in spite of its chemical similarity to the system PMMA-SAN. The difference in behavior between PMMA-PS and PMMA-SAN may be explained on the basis of polymer compatibility. PMMA and SAN form a compatible pair, whereas PMMA and PS are incompatible; thus the short range protective effect of the phenyl groups in PS is inhibited.« less
  • A reversible photophysical degradation of P1VN/PMMA blends is observed at 77 K upon prolonged irradiation. In the dilute blends, the ratio of singlet excimer to monomer emission increases as exposure time increases. However, thermal annealing even below the glass transition temperature can restore the original ratio of singlet excimer to monomer.