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Title: White Paper on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Basic Science

Abstract

Reliable nuclear structure and reaction data represent the fundamental building blocks of nuclear physics and astrophysics research, and are also of importance in many applications. There is a continuous demand for high-quality updates of the main nuclear physics databases via the prompt compilation and evaluation of the latest experimental and theoretical results. The nuclear physics research community benefits greatly from comprehensive, systematic and up-to-date reviews of the experimentally determined nuclear properties and observables, as well as from the ability to rapidly access these data in user-friendly forms. Such credible databases also act as a bridge between science, technology, and society by making the results of basic nuclear physics research available to a broad audience of users, and hence expand the societal utilization of nuclear science. Compilation and evaluation of nuclear data has deep roots in the history of nuclear science research, as outlined in Appendix 1. They have an enormous impact on many areas of science and applications, as illustrated in Figure 2 for the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database. The present workshop concentrated on the needs of the basic nuclear science community for data and capabilities. The main role of this community is to generate and usemore » data in order to understand the basic nuclear forces and interactions that are responsible for the existence and the properties of all nuclides and, as a consequence, to gain knowledge about the origins, evolution and structure of the universe. Thus, the experiments designed to measure a wealth of nuclear properties towards these fundamental scientific goals are typically performed from within this community.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1358313
Report Number(s):
LLNL-TR-731502
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; AC02-06CH11357; AC02-98CH10886; AC02-05CB11231; SC0016948; AC05-76OR00022; FG02-97ER41033; AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Batchelder, J., Kawano, T., Kelley, J., Kondev, F. G., McCutchan, E., Smith, M., Sonzogni, A., Thoennessen, M., and Thompson, I. White Paper on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Basic Science. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1358313.
Batchelder, J., Kawano, T., Kelley, J., Kondev, F. G., McCutchan, E., Smith, M., Sonzogni, A., Thoennessen, M., & Thompson, I. White Paper on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Basic Science. United States. doi:10.2172/1358313.
Batchelder, J., Kawano, T., Kelley, J., Kondev, F. G., McCutchan, E., Smith, M., Sonzogni, A., Thoennessen, M., and Thompson, I. Sun . "White Paper on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Basic Science". United States. doi:10.2172/1358313. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358313.
@article{osti_1358313,
title = {White Paper on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Basic Science},
author = {Batchelder, J. and Kawano, T. and Kelley, J. and Kondev, F. G. and McCutchan, E. and Smith, M. and Sonzogni, A. and Thoennessen, M. and Thompson, I.},
abstractNote = {Reliable nuclear structure and reaction data represent the fundamental building blocks of nuclear physics and astrophysics research, and are also of importance in many applications. There is a continuous demand for high-quality updates of the main nuclear physics databases via the prompt compilation and evaluation of the latest experimental and theoretical results. The nuclear physics research community benefits greatly from comprehensive, systematic and up-to-date reviews of the experimentally determined nuclear properties and observables, as well as from the ability to rapidly access these data in user-friendly forms. Such credible databases also act as a bridge between science, technology, and society by making the results of basic nuclear physics research available to a broad audience of users, and hence expand the societal utilization of nuclear science. Compilation and evaluation of nuclear data has deep roots in the history of nuclear science research, as outlined in Appendix 1. They have an enormous impact on many areas of science and applications, as illustrated in Figure 2 for the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) database. The present workshop concentrated on the needs of the basic nuclear science community for data and capabilities. The main role of this community is to generate and use data in order to understand the basic nuclear forces and interactions that are responsible for the existence and the properties of all nuclides and, as a consequence, to gain knowledge about the origins, evolution and structure of the universe. Thus, the experiments designed to measure a wealth of nuclear properties towards these fundamental scientific goals are typically performed from within this community.},
doi = {10.2172/1358313},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun May 14 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sun May 14 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The global utilization of nuclear energy has come a long way from its humble beginnings in the first sustained nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago in 1942. Today, there are over 440 nuclear reactors in 31 countries producing approximately 16% of the electrical energy used worldwide. In the United States, 104 nuclear reactors currently provide 19% of electrical energy used nationally. The International Atomic Energy Agency projects significant growth in the utilization of nuclear power over the next several decades due to increasing demand for energy and environmental concerns related to emissions from fossil plants. There are 28 newmore » nuclear plants currently under construction including 10 in China, 8 in India, and 4 in Russia. In the United States, there have been notifications to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of intentions to apply for combined construction and operating licenses for 27 new units over the next decade. The projected growth in nuclear power has focused increasing attention on issues related to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technologies and materials, and the sustainability of a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the effective utilization of nuclear power will require continued improvements in nuclear technology, particularly related to safety and efficiency. In all of these areas, the performance of materials and chemical processes under extreme conditions is a limiting factor. The related basic research challenges represent some of the most demanding tests of our fundamental understanding of materials science and chemistry, and they provide significant opportunities for advancing basic science with broad impacts for nuclear reactor materials, fuels, waste forms, and separations techniques. Of particular importance is the role that new nanoscale characterization and computational tools can play in addressing these challenges. These tools, which include DOE synchrotron X-ray sources, neutron sources, nanoscale science research centers, and supercomputers, offer the opportunity to transform and accelerate the fundamental materials and chemical sciences that underpin technology development for advanced nuclear energy systems. The fundamental challenge is to understand and control chemical and physical phenomena in multi-component systems from femto-seconds to millennia, at temperatures to 1000?C, and for radiation doses to hundreds of displacements per atom (dpa). This is a scientific challenge of enormous proportions, with broad implications in the materials science and chemistry of complex systems. New understanding is required for microstructural evolution and phase stability under relevant chemical and physical conditions, chemistry and structural evolution at interfaces, chemical behavior of actinide and fission-product solutions, and nuclear and thermomechanical phenomena in fuels and waste forms. First-principles approaches are needed to describe f-electron systems, design molecules for separations, and explain materials failure mechanisms. Nanoscale synthesis and characterization methods are needed to understand and design materials and interfaces with radiation, temperature, and corrosion resistance. Dynamical measurements are required to understand fundamental physical and chemical phenomena. New multiscale approaches are needed to integrate this knowledge into accurate models of relevant phenomena and complex systems across multiple length and time scales.« less
  • In July 2014, DOE NP carried out a review of the US Nuclear Data Program. This led to several recommendations, including that the USNDP should “devise effective and transparent mechanisms to solicit input and feedback from all stakeholders on nuclear data needs and priorities.” The review also recommended that USNDP pursue experimental activities of relevance to nuclear data; the revised 2014 Mission Statement accordingly states that the USNDP uses “targeted experimental studies” to address gaps in nuclear data. In support of these recommendations, DOE NP requested that USNDP personnel organize a Workshop on Nuclear Data Needs and Capabilities for Applicationsmore » (NDNCA). This Workshop was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on 27-29 May 2015. The goal of the NDNCA Workshop was to compile nuclear data needs across a wide spectrum of applied nuclear science, and to provide a summary of associated capabilities (accelerators, reactors, spectrometers, etc.) available for the required measurements. The first two days of the workshop consisted of 25 plenary talks by speakers from 16 different institutions, on nuclear energy (NE), national security (NS), isotope production (IP), and industrial applications (IA). There were also shorter “capabilities” talks that described the experimental facilities and instrumentation available for the measurement of nuclear data. This was followed by a third day of topic-specific “breakout” sessions and a final closeout session. The agenda and copies of these talks are available online at http://bang.berkeley.edu/events/NDNCA/agenda. The importance of nuclear data to both basic and applied nuclear science was reflected in the fact that while the impetus for the workshop arose from the 2014 USNDP review, joint sponsorship for the workshop was provided by the Nuclear Science and Security Consortium, a UC-Berkeley based organization funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA).« less
  • A coordination meeting of the program was held at Argonne National Laboratory on September 17-19, 1986. Representatives from the participating laboratories and from the fusion technology community met to discuss nuclear data needs for fusion. Most of the standing nuclear data requests for fusion were discussed in considerable detail, and the status of the relevant data was reviewed. Task force groups were organized along disciplinary lines to address many of the issues which confront the program. Plans were laid for several collaborative endeavors, including technical projects to address specific data problems and an intercomparison of methods and codes in themore » area of nuclear modeling.« less
  • This review was prepared during a coordination meeting held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on September 28-29, 1983. Participants included research scientists working for this program, a representative from the OFE's Coordination of Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Nuclear Data Needs Activities, and invited specialists.
  • Experimental data acquired under the BES program to meet Fusion Data Needs from its inception (1975) to 1983 are summarized by element, reaction, energy, and contributing laboratory. Cases where the data have been incorporated in ENDF evaluations are noted. Work in nuclear model code development under this program is summarized.