skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: BISON Modeling of Reactivity-Initiated Accident Experiments in a Static Environment

Abstract

In conjunction with the restart of the TREAT reactor and the design of test vehicles, modeling and simulation efforts are being used to model the response of Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts under reactivity insertion accident (RIA) conditions. The purpose of this work is to model a baseline case of a 10 cm long UO2-Zircaloy fuel rodlet using BISON and RELAP5 over a range of energy depositions and with varying reactor power pulse widths. The results show the effect of varying the pulse width and energy deposition on both thermal and mechanical parameters that are important for predicting failure of the fuel rodlet. The combined BISON/RELAP5 model captures coupled thermal and mechanical effects on the fuel-to-cladding gap conductance, cladding-to-coolant heat transfer coefficient and water temperature and pressure that would not be capable in each code individually. These combined effects allow for a more accurate modeling of the thermal and mechanical response in the fuel rodlet and thermal-hydraulics of the test vehicle.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1358206
Report Number(s):
INL/CON-16-37614
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Top Fuel 2016, Boise, Idaho USA, September 11–16, 2016
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; BISON; Fuel Performance Modeling; RELAP5; TREAT

Citation Formats

Folsom, Charles P., Jensen, Colby B., Williamson, Richard L., Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E., Ban, Heng, and Wachs, Daniel M.. BISON Modeling of Reactivity-Initiated Accident Experiments in a Static Environment. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Folsom, Charles P., Jensen, Colby B., Williamson, Richard L., Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E., Ban, Heng, & Wachs, Daniel M.. BISON Modeling of Reactivity-Initiated Accident Experiments in a Static Environment. United States.
Folsom, Charles P., Jensen, Colby B., Williamson, Richard L., Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E., Ban, Heng, and Wachs, Daniel M.. Thu . "BISON Modeling of Reactivity-Initiated Accident Experiments in a Static Environment". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358206.
@article{osti_1358206,
title = {BISON Modeling of Reactivity-Initiated Accident Experiments in a Static Environment},
author = {Folsom, Charles P. and Jensen, Colby B. and Williamson, Richard L. and Woolstenhulme, Nicolas E. and Ban, Heng and Wachs, Daniel M.},
abstractNote = {In conjunction with the restart of the TREAT reactor and the design of test vehicles, modeling and simulation efforts are being used to model the response of Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts under reactivity insertion accident (RIA) conditions. The purpose of this work is to model a baseline case of a 10 cm long UO2-Zircaloy fuel rodlet using BISON and RELAP5 over a range of energy depositions and with varying reactor power pulse widths. The results show the effect of varying the pulse width and energy deposition on both thermal and mechanical parameters that are important for predicting failure of the fuel rodlet. The combined BISON/RELAP5 model captures coupled thermal and mechanical effects on the fuel-to-cladding gap conductance, cladding-to-coolant heat transfer coefficient and water temperature and pressure that would not be capable in each code individually. These combined effects allow for a more accurate modeling of the thermal and mechanical response in the fuel rodlet and thermal-hydraulics of the test vehicle.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • In the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) owned and operated by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), extensive experimental studies on the fuel behavior under reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) conditions have been executed since the start of the test program in 1975. Accumulated experimental data were used as the fundamental data base for the safety evaluation guideline concerning reactivity-initiated events (RIEs) in light water cooled nuclear power plants established by the nuclear safety commission in 1984.
  • Experimental testing in the Multi-Static Environment Rodlet Transient Test Apparatus (SERTTA) will lead the rebirth of transient fuel testing in the United States as part of the Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) progam. The Multi-SERTTA is comprised of four isolated pressurized environments capable of a wide variety of working fluids and thermal conditions. Ultimately, the TREAT reactor as well as the Multi-SERTTA test vehicle serve the purpose of providing desired thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions to the test specimen. The initial ATF testing in TREAT will focus on reactivity insertion accident (RIA) events using both gas and water environments including typical PWR operatingmore » pressures and temperatures. For the water test environment, a test configuration is envisioned using the expansion tank as part of the gas-filled expansion volume seen by the test to provide additional pressure relief. The heat transfer conditions during the high energy power pulses of RIA events remains a subject of large uncertainty and great importance for fuel performance predictions. To support transient experiments, the Multi-SERTTA vehicle has been modeled using RELAP5 with a baseline test specimen composed of UO2 fuel in zircaloy cladding. The modeling results show the influence of the designs of the specimen, vehicle, and transient power pulses. The primary purpose of this work is to provide input and boundary conditions to fuel performance code BISON. Therefore, studies of parameters having influence on specimen performance during RIA transients are presented including cladding oxidation, power pulse magnitude and width, cladding-to-coolant heat fluxes, fuel-to-cladding gap, transient boiling effects (modified CHF values), etc. The results show the great flexibility and capacity of the TREAT Multi-SERTTA test vehicle to provide testing under a wide range of prototypic thermal-hydraulic conditions as never done before.« less
  • Experimental results from six recent Power Burst Facility (PBF) reactivity initiated accident (RIA) tests are compared with data from previous Special Power Excursion Reactor Test (SPERT), and Japanese Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) tests. The RIA fuel behavior experimental program recently started in the PBF is being conducted with coolant conditions typical of hot-startup conditions in a commercial boiling water reactor. The SPERT and NSRR test programs investigated the behavior of single or small clusters of light water reactor (LWR) type fuel rods under approximate room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions in capsules containing stagnant water. As observed in themore » SPERT and NSRR tests, energy deposition, and consequent enthalpy increase in the PBF test fuel, appears to be the single most important variable. However, the consequences of failure at boiling water hot-startup system conditions appear to be more severe than previously observed in either the stagnant capsule SPERT or NSRR tests. Metallographic examination of both previously unirradiated and irradiated PBF fuel rod cross sections revealed extensive variation in cladding wall thicknesses (involving considerable plastic flow) and fuel shattering along grain boundaries in both restructured and unrestructured fuel regions. Oxidation of the cladding resulted in fracture at the location of cladding thinning and disintegration of the rods during quench. In addition,swelling of the gaseous and potentially volatile fission products in previously irradiated fuel resulted in volume increases of up to 180% and blockage of the coolant channels within the flow shrouds surrounding the fuel rods.« less
  • Experimental results from six recent Power Burst Facility (PBF) reactivity initiated accident (RIA) tests are compared with data from previous SPERT, TREAT and NSRR programs. The RIA fuel behavior experimental program recently started in the PBF is being conducted with coolant conditions typical of hot-startup conditions in a commercial boiling water reactor. The SPERT, TREAT and NSRR test programs investigated the behavior of single or small clusters of light water reactor (LWR) type fuel rods under approximate room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions in capsules containing stagnant water. As observed in the previous tests, energy depositions, and consequent enthalpy increase,more » in the PBF test fuel appears to be the single most important variable. However, the consequences of failure at boiling water hot-startup system conditions appear to be more severe than previously observed in either the stagnant SPERT or NSRR tests. Metallographic examination of both previously unirradiated and irradiated PBF fuel rod cross sections revealed extensive variation in cladding wall thickness involving considerable plastic flow and fuel shattering along grain boundaries in both restructured and unrestructured fuel regions. In addition, swelling of the gaseous and potentially volatile fission products in previously irradiated fuel resulted in volume increases of up to 180% and blockage of the flow shrouds surrounding the fuel rods.« less
  • Fission product release from light water reactor-type fuel rods to the coolant loop during design basis accident tests is the subject of this paper. One of the tests was a power-cooling-mismatch test in which a single fuel rod was operated in film boiling beyond failure. Other tests discussed include reactivity initiated accident (RIA) tests, in which the fuel rods failed as a result of power bursts that produced radial-average peak fuel enthalpies ranging from 250 to 350 cal/g. One of the RIA tests included two previously irradiated fuel rods. On-line gamma spectroscopic measurements of short-lived fission products and important aspectsmore » of fission product behavior observed during the tests are also discussed. Time-dependent release fractions for short-lived fission products are presented and compared with release fractions suggested by the Reactor Safety Study, NRC Regulatory Guides, and measurements from the Three Mile Island accident.« less