skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Real Time Optimal Control of Supercapacitor Operation for Frequency Response

Abstract

Supercapacitors are gaining wider applications in power systems due to fast dynamic response. Utilizing supercapacitors by means of power electronics interfaces for power compensation is a proven effective technique. For applications such as requency restoration if the cost of supercapacitors maintenance as well as the energy loss on the power electronics interfaces are addressed. It is infeasible to use traditional optimization control methods to mitigate the impacts of frequent cycling. This paper proposes a Front End Controller (FEC) using Generalized Predictive Control featuring real time receding optimization. The optimization constraints are based on cost and thermal management to enhance to the utilization efficiency of supercapacitors. A rigorous mathematical derivation is conducted and test results acquired from Digital Real Time Simulator are provided to demonstrate effectiveness.

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1358194
Report Number(s):
INL/CON-15-37197
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, Boston, MA, July 17–21, 2016
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; front end controller; generalized predictive control; Real Time Digital Simulator; receding optimization; supercapacitors

Citation Formats

Luo, Yusheng, Panwar, Mayank, Mohanpurkar, Manish, and Hovsapian, Rob. Real Time Optimal Control of Supercapacitor Operation for Frequency Response. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1109/PESGM.2016.7742036.
Luo, Yusheng, Panwar, Mayank, Mohanpurkar, Manish, & Hovsapian, Rob. Real Time Optimal Control of Supercapacitor Operation for Frequency Response. United States. doi:10.1109/PESGM.2016.7742036.
Luo, Yusheng, Panwar, Mayank, Mohanpurkar, Manish, and Hovsapian, Rob. 2016. "Real Time Optimal Control of Supercapacitor Operation for Frequency Response". United States. doi:10.1109/PESGM.2016.7742036. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358194.
@article{osti_1358194,
title = {Real Time Optimal Control of Supercapacitor Operation for Frequency Response},
author = {Luo, Yusheng and Panwar, Mayank and Mohanpurkar, Manish and Hovsapian, Rob},
abstractNote = {Supercapacitors are gaining wider applications in power systems due to fast dynamic response. Utilizing supercapacitors by means of power electronics interfaces for power compensation is a proven effective technique. For applications such as requency restoration if the cost of supercapacitors maintenance as well as the energy loss on the power electronics interfaces are addressed. It is infeasible to use traditional optimization control methods to mitigate the impacts of frequent cycling. This paper proposes a Front End Controller (FEC) using Generalized Predictive Control featuring real time receding optimization. The optimization constraints are based on cost and thermal management to enhance to the utilization efficiency of supercapacitors. A rigorous mathematical derivation is conducted and test results acquired from Digital Real Time Simulator are provided to demonstrate effectiveness.},
doi = {10.1109/PESGM.2016.7742036},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • To optimize VAR sources on a power system, system planners must identify the location, size, and type of all available reactive power devices. The Control Design Challenge problem is to determine the least-costly VAR expansion pattern that will enable large power system to maintain acceptable voltage levels in all conditions.
  • With reasonable definitions, optimal control is possible for both classical and quantal systems with new approaches called PISC(Parallel) and NISC(Neural) from analogy with RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing). If control equals interaction, observation and comparison to some figure of merit with interaction via external fields, then optimization comes from varying these fields to give design or operating goals. Structural stability can then give us tolerance and design constraints. But simulations use simplified models, are not in real-time and assume fixed or stationary conditions, so optimal control goes far beyond convergence rates of algorithms. It is inseparable from design and thismore » has many implications for colliders. 12 refs., 3 figs.« less
  • Precise time is used by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for on-line monitoring of the power system, to provide time synchronization for system monitoring equipment, and to assist in event analysis when a disturbance occurs on the transmission system. This paper presents results of this project and discusses research efforts that will result in further applications of voltage phase-angle measurement. Additional R and D is also needed for more accurate and reliable precise time equipment and the development of standards for disseminating time and frequency.
  • Controlling emissions from coating operations has historically been cost-prohibitive due to high exhaust flow rates coupled with low VOC concentrations. Studies performed over the last 10 years indicate that significant control cost reductions are achieved by reducing booth exhaust flow rates via recirculation. These studies demonstrated that recirculation can safely reduce exhaust flow rates by more than 50%, thereby saving millions of dollars in emission control system installation and operating costs, as well as HVAC costs. The flow reduction potential of recirculation is limited by the OSHA allowable concentrations of hazardous constituents in the recirculated stream. Unfortunately, recirculation systems implementedmore » to date employ a fixed recirculation rate which is selected based on highest coating usage conditions to ensure safe operation. Studies show these high usage conditions actually occur less than 15% of the time, thus fixed recirculation doesn`t achieve nearly the flow reduction that is possible. The solution: design the recirculation system to be continuously adjustable and therefore minimize the exhaust flow rate on a real-time basis. This technology, known as Dynamic Recirculation, is a recent innovation that has never been demonstrated until now. Steelcase Corporation recognized the significant economic benefits of dynamic recirculation, and has launched an innovative program to demonstrate the viability of this technology. In addition to dynamic recirculation, the program is investigating the applicability of an innovative solvent collection/recovery device that employs fluidized bed adsorption for controlling VOC emissions. The paper discusses the overall program, details the key engineering and safety issues that were addressed during the system evaluation and design efforts, and illustrates the viability of dynamic recirculation for many industrial, aerospace, and military coating operations.« less
  • A workshop was sponsored by the US DOE, November 19--21, 1991 to define the R D needs and their priority and timing for real-time control and operation of electric power systems. The four technical areas which were covered during the technical sessions and served as the topics for the working groups included: advanced power system technologies; advanced measurement, communication, and information systems; new modeling, analysis, and computation techniques; and intelligent and adaptive power system control and operations. Of the thirteen topical white papers that were presented at the workshop, three papers on advanced power system technologies were by Virginia Polytechnicmore » Institute, Electrotek Concepts, Inc., and Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three papers on advanced measurements, communication, and information systems were presented by Reshet, Inc., Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and EPRI. Four papers on new modeling, analysis, and computation were presented by Energy Control Consultants, Advanced SCADA Consulting Engineers, The University Alabama and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories with BPA. The last three papers on intelligent and adaptive power system control and operations were presented by Mississippi State University, University of Maine, and Clemson University. A follow up meeting on December 10, 1991 consolidated and organized the thirty-nine areas identified at the workshop into six major areas that include: (1) optimal transmission system operation, (2) optimal distribution system operation, (3) advanced power system technologies,(4) on-line sensing systems, (5) local control, and (6) power system engineering research needs. All of these papers and meetings provide input to a multi-year program plan to be prepared by ORNL and DOE.« less