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Title: PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RECOVERY OF CRITICAL MATERIALS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE

Abstract

As electronic technology continues to evolve there is a growing need to develop processes which recover valuable material from antiquated technology. This need follows from the environmental challenges associated with the availability of raw materials and fast growing generation of electronic waste. Although just present in small quantities in electronic devices, the availability of raw materials, such as rare earths and precious metals, becomes critical for the production of high tech electronic devices and the development of green technologies (i.e. wind turbines, electric motors, and solar panels). Therefore, the proper recycling and processing of increasing volumes of electronic waste present an opportunity to stabilize the market of critical materials, reducing the demand of mined products, and providing a proper disposal and treatment of a hazardous waste stream. This paper will describe development and techno-economic assessment of a comprehensive process for the recovery of value and critical materials from electronic waste. This hydrometallurgical scheme aims to selectively recover different value segments in the materials streams (base metals, precious metals, and rare earths). The economic feasibility for the recovery of rare earths from electronic waste is mostly driven by the efficient recovery of precious metals, such as Au and Pd (ca. 80more » % of the total recoverable value). Rare earth elements contained in magnets (speakers, vibrators and hard disk storage) can be recovered as a mixture of rare earths oxides which can later be reduced to the production of new magnets.« less

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1358185
Report Number(s):
INL/CON-15-36506
DOE Contract Number:
DE-AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: International Mineral Processing Congress, Quebec City, Quebec, September 11–15, 2016
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; critical materials; electrochemistry; electronic scrap; precious metals; recycling

Citation Formats

Lister, T. E., Diaz, L. A., Clark, G. G., and Keller, P. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RECOVERY OF CRITICAL MATERIALS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Lister, T. E., Diaz, L. A., Clark, G. G., & Keller, P. PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RECOVERY OF CRITICAL MATERIALS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. United States.
Lister, T. E., Diaz, L. A., Clark, G. G., and Keller, P. Thu . "PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RECOVERY OF CRITICAL MATERIALS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358185.
@article{osti_1358185,
title = {PROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RECOVERY OF CRITICAL MATERIALS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE},
author = {Lister, T. E. and Diaz, L. A. and Clark, G. G. and Keller, P.},
abstractNote = {As electronic technology continues to evolve there is a growing need to develop processes which recover valuable material from antiquated technology. This need follows from the environmental challenges associated with the availability of raw materials and fast growing generation of electronic waste. Although just present in small quantities in electronic devices, the availability of raw materials, such as rare earths and precious metals, becomes critical for the production of high tech electronic devices and the development of green technologies (i.e. wind turbines, electric motors, and solar panels). Therefore, the proper recycling and processing of increasing volumes of electronic waste present an opportunity to stabilize the market of critical materials, reducing the demand of mined products, and providing a proper disposal and treatment of a hazardous waste stream. This paper will describe development and techno-economic assessment of a comprehensive process for the recovery of value and critical materials from electronic waste. This hydrometallurgical scheme aims to selectively recover different value segments in the materials streams (base metals, precious metals, and rare earths). The economic feasibility for the recovery of rare earths from electronic waste is mostly driven by the efficient recovery of precious metals, such as Au and Pd (ca. 80 % of the total recoverable value). Rare earth elements contained in magnets (speakers, vibrators and hard disk storage) can be recovered as a mixture of rare earths oxides which can later be reduced to the production of new magnets.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

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  • The development of technologies that contribute to the proper disposal and treatment of electronic waste is not just an environmental need, but an opportunity for the recovery and recycle of valuable metals and critical materials. Value elements in electronic waste include gold, palladium, silver, copper, nickel, and rare earth elements (RE). Here, we present the development of a process that enables efficient recycling of metals from scrap mobile electronics. An electro recycling (ER) process, based on the regeneration of Fe 3+ as a weak oxidizer, is studied for the selective recovery of base metals while leaving precious metals for separatemore » extraction at reduced chemical demand. A separate process recovers rare earth oxides from magnets in electronics. Furthermore, recovery and extraction efficiencies ca. 90 % were obtained for the extraction of base metals from the non-ferromagnetic fraction in the two different solution matrices tested (H 2SO 4, and HCl). The effect of the pre-extraction of base metals in the increase of precious metals extraction efficiency was verified. On the other hand, the extraction of rare earths from the ferromagnetic fraction, performed by means of anaerobic extraction in acid media, was assessed for the selective recovery of rare earths. We developed a comprehensive flow sheet to process electronic waste to value products.« less
  • The facility design assumptions for a materials recovery facility, a compost facility and an energy from waste facility were intended to result in a facility with minimal impact on the natural environment. The criteria described in discussion paper 3.5A were based on this assumption. This addendum describes the additional criteria identified for use in Step 2 of the site selection process, the revised criteria to be used in Step 3 and the method that will be used to apply the revised Step 3 criterial. Step 2 addresses the type of technology used to minimize adverse effects on the natural environment.more » Step 3 addresses the selection of short-listed sites from a longer list and the methods used.« less
  • The recovery process of valuable metals, such as Li, Mn, Ni and Cr from a waste lithium battery was developed in this study. Lithium and Mn are selectively leached from the battery by using dilute mineral acid. The main part of the battery comprises stainless steel, and Fe, Ni and Cr are easily leached by the mixture of dilute HCl and HNO{sub 3}. Lithium and Mn are precipitated as metal carbonates from the individual leached solution with sodium carbonate solution. The solution containing Fe, Ni and Cr is treated by solvent extraction to separate Ni and Cr from the leachedmore » solution. The experiments are carried out for leaching and separation steps. According to the experimental results, the flow sheet for a recovery process of valuable metals from a waste lithium battery has been established.« less
  • A process has been developed from laboratory-scale experiments for the aqueous processing of various lead-bearing wastes. The process exploits the limited solubility of lead in sulfate-rich solutions to effectively separate lead from other metals. The lead sulfate is then completely converted to lead carbonate using sodium carbonate and ammonium carbonate. The effectiveness of this conversion was observed to be sensitive to the solution pH and carbonate concentration. The final stage of the process uses low temperature calcination of the lead carbonate to form PbO. Yellow lead oxide (massicot) is readily formed if calcination is conducted at a temperature at ormore » above 500{degrees}C, while red lead oxide (litharge) is formed at temperatures near 450{degrees}C. A complete economical analysis of the process will be discussed. 7 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.« less