skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Ejecta transport, breakup and conversion

Abstract

Here, we report experimental results from an initial study of reactive and nonreactive metal fragments—ejecta—transporting in vacuum, and in reactive and nonreactive gases. We postulate that reactive metal fragments ejected into a reactive gas, such as H 2, will break up into smaller fragments in situations where they are otherwise hydrodynamically stable in a nonreactive gas such as He. To evaluate the hypothesis we machined periodic perturbations onto thin Ce and Zn coupons and then explosively shocked them to eject hot, micron-scale fragments from the perturbations. The ejecta masses were diagnosed with piezoelectric pressure transducers, and their transport in H 2 and He was imaged with visible and infrared (IR) cameras. Because Ce + H 2 → CeH 2 + ΔH, where ΔH is the enthalpy of formation, an observed increase of the relative IR (radiance) temperature TR between the Ce–H 2 and Ce–He gas systems can be used to estimate the amount of Ce that converts to CeH 2. As a result, the experiments sought to determine whether dynamic chemical effects should be included in ejecta-transport models.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [3];  [3]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)
  3. National Securities Technologies, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1358166
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-28075
Journal ID: ISSN 2199-7446
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2199-7446
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ejecta; transport; multiphase flow

Citation Formats

Buttler, William Tillman, Lamoreaux, Steven Keith, Schulze, Roland K., Schwarzkopf, John Dennis, Cooley, Jason Christopher, Grover, Mike, Hammerberg, James Edward, La Lone, Brandon M., Llobet Megias, Anna, Manzanares, Ruben, Martinez, John Israel, Schmidt, Derek William, Sheppard, Daniel Glen, Stevens, Gerald D., Turley, William D., and Veeser, Lynn R.. Ejecta transport, breakup and conversion. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1007/s40870-017-0114-6.
Buttler, William Tillman, Lamoreaux, Steven Keith, Schulze, Roland K., Schwarzkopf, John Dennis, Cooley, Jason Christopher, Grover, Mike, Hammerberg, James Edward, La Lone, Brandon M., Llobet Megias, Anna, Manzanares, Ruben, Martinez, John Israel, Schmidt, Derek William, Sheppard, Daniel Glen, Stevens, Gerald D., Turley, William D., & Veeser, Lynn R.. Ejecta transport, breakup and conversion. United States. doi:10.1007/s40870-017-0114-6.
Buttler, William Tillman, Lamoreaux, Steven Keith, Schulze, Roland K., Schwarzkopf, John Dennis, Cooley, Jason Christopher, Grover, Mike, Hammerberg, James Edward, La Lone, Brandon M., Llobet Megias, Anna, Manzanares, Ruben, Martinez, John Israel, Schmidt, Derek William, Sheppard, Daniel Glen, Stevens, Gerald D., Turley, William D., and Veeser, Lynn R.. 2017. "Ejecta transport, breakup and conversion". United States. doi:10.1007/s40870-017-0114-6.
@article{osti_1358166,
title = {Ejecta transport, breakup and conversion},
author = {Buttler, William Tillman and Lamoreaux, Steven Keith and Schulze, Roland K. and Schwarzkopf, John Dennis and Cooley, Jason Christopher and Grover, Mike and Hammerberg, James Edward and La Lone, Brandon M. and Llobet Megias, Anna and Manzanares, Ruben and Martinez, John Israel and Schmidt, Derek William and Sheppard, Daniel Glen and Stevens, Gerald D. and Turley, William D. and Veeser, Lynn R.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report experimental results from an initial study of reactive and nonreactive metal fragments—ejecta—transporting in vacuum, and in reactive and nonreactive gases. We postulate that reactive metal fragments ejected into a reactive gas, such as H2, will break up into smaller fragments in situations where they are otherwise hydrodynamically stable in a nonreactive gas such as He. To evaluate the hypothesis we machined periodic perturbations onto thin Ce and Zn coupons and then explosively shocked them to eject hot, micron-scale fragments from the perturbations. The ejecta masses were diagnosed with piezoelectric pressure transducers, and their transport in H2 and He was imaged with visible and infrared (IR) cameras. Because Ce + H2 → CeH2 + ΔH, where ΔH is the enthalpy of formation, an observed increase of the relative IR (radiance) temperature TR between the Ce–H2 and Ce–He gas systems can be used to estimate the amount of Ce that converts to CeH2. As a result, the experiments sought to determine whether dynamic chemical effects should be included in ejecta-transport models.},
doi = {10.1007/s40870-017-0114-6},
journal = {Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials},
number = 2,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 4
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on April 26, 2018
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • Experiments have demonstrated the reduction of the beam-breakup (BBU) instability growth rate by coupling the main cavities, through which an electron beam passes, to identical dummy cavities. When seven of the ten main cavities are coupled, an average reduction of about 6 dB in BBU microwave growth, from 36 to 30 dB, is observed. This reduction is consistent with a simple mode coupling theory. The electron beam parameters are 750 kV, 210 A, 0.5 [mu]s, with solenoidal focusing of 3.4 kG.
  • Nanolithographically patterned copper rings were synthesized, and the self-assembly of the rings into ordered nanoparticle/nanodrop arrays was accomplished via nanosecond pulsed laser heating above the melt threshold. The resultant length scale was correlated to the transport and instability growths that occur during the liquid lifetime of the melted copper rings. For 13-nm-thick rings, a change in the nanoparticle spacing with the ring width is attributed to a transition from a Raleigh-Plateau instability to a thin film instability because of competition between the cumulative transport and instability timescales. To explore the competition between instability mechanisms further, we carried out experiments withmore » 7-nm-thick rings. In agreement with the theoretical predictions, these rings break up in both the azimuthal and radial directions, confirming that a simple hydrodynamic model captures the main features of the processes leading to the breakup.« less
  • This paper reports that both a wave mechanism and a perforation mechanism have been proposed as the first step in the breakup of fluid sheets. For black liquor sprays, the dominant mechanism is the formation and growth of perforations according to either mechanism, cylindrical strands develop and subsequently break up to form drops. By combining the results of analyzing the breakup of both the sheet and strands, only a discrete number of drop sizes can be predicted from the wave mechanism.
  • The nuclear-breakup and Coulomb-breakup contributions to the sequential breakup of 156-MeV {sup 6}Li by {sup 208}Pb via the 3{sup +} resonance state of {sup 6}Li at 2.186 MeV are investigated by three-body calculations based on the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method. The nuclear-breakup contribution is as important as the Coulomb-breakup one up to forward angles where the Coulomb breakup was believed to be dominant. The effects of multistep processes via various nonresonant continuum states due to the three-body dynamics are also found to be important.