skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen Syngas Production

Abstract

The techno-economic analyses of the hybrid molten bed gasification technology and laboratory testing of the HMB process were carried out in this project by the Gas Technology Institute and partner Nexant, Inc. under contract with the US Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes the results of two complete IGCC and Fischer-Tropsch TEA analyses comparing HMB gasification with the Shell slagging gasification process as a base case. Also included are the results of the laboratory simulation tests of the HMB process using Illinois #6 coal fed along with natural gas, two different syngases, and steam. Work in this 18-month project was carried out in three main Tasks. Task 2 was completed first and involved modeling, mass and energy balances, and gasification process design. The results of this work were provided to Nexant as input to the TEA IGCC and FT configurations studied in detail in Task 3. The results of Task 2 were also used to guide the design of the laboratory-scale testing of the HMB concept in the submerged combustion melting test facility in GTI’s industrial combustion laboratory. All project work was completed on time and budget. A project close-out meeting reviewing project results was conductedmore » on April 1, 2015 at GTI in Des Plaines, IL. The hybrid molten bed gasification process techno-economic analyses found that the HMB process is both technically and economically attractive compared with the Shell entrained flow gasification process. In IGCC configuration, HMB gasification provides both efficiency and cost benefits. In Fischer-Tropsch configuration, HMB shows small benefits, primarily because even at current low natural gas prices, natural gas is more expensive than coal on an energy cost basis. HMB gasification was found in the TEA to improve the overall IGCC economics as compared to the coal only Shell gasification process. Operationally, the HMB process proved to be robust and easy to operate. The burner was stable over the full oxygen to fuel firing range (0.8 to 1.05 of fuel gas stoichiometry) and with all fuel gases (natural gas and two syngas compositions), with steam, and without steam. The lower Btu content of the syngases presented no combustion difficulties. The molten bed was stable throughout testing. The molten bed was easily established as a bed of molten glass. As the composition changed from glass cullet to cullet with slag, no instabilities were encountered. The bed temperature and product syngas temperature remained stable throughout testing, demonstrating that the bed serves as a good heat sink for the gasification process. Product syngas temperature measured above the bed was stable at ~1600ºF. Testing found that syngas quality measured as H 2/CO ratio increased with decreasing oxygen to fuel gas stoichiometric ratio, higher steam to inlet carbon ratio, higher temperature, and syngas compared with natural gas. The highest H 2/CO ratios achieved were in the range of 0.70 to 0.78. These values are well below the targets of 1.5 to 2.0 that were expected and were predicted by modeling. The team, however, is encouraged that the HMB process can and will achieve H 2/CO ratios up to 2.0. Changes needed include direct injection of coal into the molten bed of slag to prevent coal particle bypass into the product gas stream, elevation of the molten bed temperature to approximately 2500ºF, and further decrease of the oxygen to fuel gas ratio to well below the 0.85 minimum ratio used in the testing in this project.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Clean Coal and Carbon (FE-20)
Contributing Org.:
Nexant, Inc.
OSTI Identifier:
1358079
Report Number(s):
DOE-GTI-12122
DOE Contract Number:
FE0012122
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; coal; natural gas; gasification; molten bed

Citation Formats

Rue, David. Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen Syngas Production. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1358079.
Rue, David. Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen Syngas Production. United States. doi:10.2172/1358079.
Rue, David. Tue . "Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen Syngas Production". United States. doi:10.2172/1358079. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1358079.
@article{osti_1358079,
title = {Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen Syngas Production},
author = {Rue, David},
abstractNote = {The techno-economic analyses of the hybrid molten bed gasification technology and laboratory testing of the HMB process were carried out in this project by the Gas Technology Institute and partner Nexant, Inc. under contract with the US Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes the results of two complete IGCC and Fischer-Tropsch TEA analyses comparing HMB gasification with the Shell slagging gasification process as a base case. Also included are the results of the laboratory simulation tests of the HMB process using Illinois #6 coal fed along with natural gas, two different syngases, and steam. Work in this 18-month project was carried out in three main Tasks. Task 2 was completed first and involved modeling, mass and energy balances, and gasification process design. The results of this work were provided to Nexant as input to the TEA IGCC and FT configurations studied in detail in Task 3. The results of Task 2 were also used to guide the design of the laboratory-scale testing of the HMB concept in the submerged combustion melting test facility in GTI’s industrial combustion laboratory. All project work was completed on time and budget. A project close-out meeting reviewing project results was conducted on April 1, 2015 at GTI in Des Plaines, IL. The hybrid molten bed gasification process techno-economic analyses found that the HMB process is both technically and economically attractive compared with the Shell entrained flow gasification process. In IGCC configuration, HMB gasification provides both efficiency and cost benefits. In Fischer-Tropsch configuration, HMB shows small benefits, primarily because even at current low natural gas prices, natural gas is more expensive than coal on an energy cost basis. HMB gasification was found in the TEA to improve the overall IGCC economics as compared to the coal only Shell gasification process. Operationally, the HMB process proved to be robust and easy to operate. The burner was stable over the full oxygen to fuel firing range (0.8 to 1.05 of fuel gas stoichiometry) and with all fuel gases (natural gas and two syngas compositions), with steam, and without steam. The lower Btu content of the syngases presented no combustion difficulties. The molten bed was stable throughout testing. The molten bed was easily established as a bed of molten glass. As the composition changed from glass cullet to cullet with slag, no instabilities were encountered. The bed temperature and product syngas temperature remained stable throughout testing, demonstrating that the bed serves as a good heat sink for the gasification process. Product syngas temperature measured above the bed was stable at ~1600ºF. Testing found that syngas quality measured as H2/CO ratio increased with decreasing oxygen to fuel gas stoichiometric ratio, higher steam to inlet carbon ratio, higher temperature, and syngas compared with natural gas. The highest H2/CO ratios achieved were in the range of 0.70 to 0.78. These values are well below the targets of 1.5 to 2.0 that were expected and were predicted by modeling. The team, however, is encouraged that the HMB process can and will achieve H2/CO ratios up to 2.0. Changes needed include direct injection of coal into the molten bed of slag to prevent coal particle bypass into the product gas stream, elevation of the molten bed temperature to approximately 2500ºF, and further decrease of the oxygen to fuel gas ratio to well below the 0.85 minimum ratio used in the testing in this project.},
doi = {10.2172/1358079},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue May 23 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue May 23 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are being developed as new electrical generation equipment to be used in power plants for utilities and industrial cogeneration applications. Coal-fired MCFC power plants are projected to have one of the highest efficiencies of any advanced generation concepts in addition to being environmentally attractive and economically competitive. The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) has supported this work with the objectives of bringing more business into New York State and of being part of a national program to develop a product that will benefit the citizens in the state. The program's scopemore » consists of introductory tasks on electrode development, an application study, a gasifier study, and a definition of a stack configuration. The electrode development project investigated 23 electrode materials for chemical stability and conductivity and found that 10 anode and five cathode materials warrant further investigation. Investigations were also started on dual-porosity electrodes and electroless plating Ni on SrTiO/sub 3/ for electrode material. During the application study, four major New York utilities and three industrial plants were contacted. Their requirements and recommendations are summarized in the report. In the gasifier study, both Bell Aerospace Textron and General Electric gasifiers were investigated for use in a large coal-fired MCFC plant. The stack configuration definition resulted in a preliminary design of a fuel cell stack using internal manifolds and counterflow of the fuel and oxidant. Specifications, drawings, and material recommendations were made.« less
  • This report presents the results of a study comparing different gasifiers as a fuel gas source for an iron-ore pelletizing facility. The objective of this study was to develop and compare the technical and economic aspects of several systems. Systems involving three different gasifiers, the two-stage fixed-bed gasifier, the Winkler fluidized-bed gasifier, and the Rockwell molten-salt gasifier, were examined. In each case, the fuel gas product was a clean, low-Btu gas produced at approximately atmospheric pressure and supplied to the pelletizing facility at a rate of 20 billion Btu per day. The evaluations were based on installing the gasifiers atmore » an existing Erie Mining Company iron-ore pelletizing plant at Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota. Thus, the designs that were developed incorporated existing facilities whenever possible. The designs presented were technically feasible. Estimated fuel gas costs ranged from $7.70 per million Btu (Winkler case) to $10.20 per million Btu (Rockwell case). In all cases, the fuel costs were higher than the current price of natural gas at Hoyt Lakes, $3.52 per million Btu. Not included in the study were considerations of intrinsic factors, such as the interruptible nature of the natural gas supplies and future anticipated changes in the prices of natural gas and coal.« less
  • The oil produced from retorting of oil shales requires hydrogen treatment to improve its characteristics and make it suitable for refining into marketable products. Hydrogen requirements can be met by partial oxidation of a fraction of the shale oil produced or by direct processing of oil shale in a fluid bed. This report examines the economics and engineering feasibility of using fluid bed systems to produce hydrogen. Fluid bed processing of oil shale to produce hydrogen might be technically and economically competitive with a more conventional shale retorting/partial oxidation method. A major development program would be required to demonstrate themore » feasibility of the fluid bed approach.« less
  • The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition regionmore » at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.« less
  • This final report summarizes the progress made on the program ''Simultaneous Production of High-Purity Hydrogen and Sequestration-Ready CO{sub 2} from Syngas (contract number DE-FG26-99FT40682)'', during October 2000 through September of 2003. GE Energy and Environmental Research (GE-EER) and Southern Illinois University (SIU) at Carbondale conducted the research work for this program. This program addresses improved methods to efficiently produce simultaneous streams of high-purity hydrogen and separated carbon dioxide from synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas may be produced through either gasification of coal or reforming of natural gas. The process of production of H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2} utilizes amore » dual-bed reactor and regenerator system. The reactor produces hydrogen and the regenerator produces separated CO{sub 2}. The dual-bed system can be operated under either a circulating fluidized-bed configuration or a cyclic fixed-bed configuration. Both configurations were evaluated in this project. The experimental effort was divided into lab-scale work at SIU and bench-scale work at GE-EER. Tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed system demonstrated the process for the conversion of syngas to high purity H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The lab-scale system generated up to 95% H{sub 2} (on a dry basis). Extensive thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions between the syngas and the fluidized solids determined an optimum range of temperature and pressure operation, where the extent of the undesirable reactions is minimum. The cycling of the process between hydrogen generation and oxygen regeneration has been demonstrated. The fluidized solids did not regenerate completely and the hydrogen purity in the reuse cycle dropped to 70% from 95% (on a dry basis). Changes in morphology and particle size may be the most dominant factor affecting the efficiency of the repeated cycling between hydrogen production and oxygen regeneration. The concept of simultaneous production of hydrogen and separated stream of CO{sub 2} was proved using a fixed bed 2 reactor system at GE-EER. This bench-scale cyclic fixed-bed reactor system designed to reform natural gas to syngas has been fabricated in another coordinated DOE project. This system was modified to reform natural gas to syngas and then convert syngas to H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The system produced 85% hydrogen (dry basis).« less