skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

Abstract

The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1357983
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2017/167
ED2802000; CEED492; CRADA/NFE-16-06111
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; additive manufacturing

Citation Formats

Post, Brian K., and Roschli, Alex C. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1357983.
Post, Brian K., & Roschli, Alex C. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing. United States. doi:10.2172/1357983.
Post, Brian K., and Roschli, Alex C. Wed . "Wide and High Additive Manufacturing". United States. doi:10.2172/1357983. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357983.
@article{osti_1357983,
title = {Wide and High Additive Manufacturing},
author = {Post, Brian K. and Roschli, Alex C.},
abstractNote = {The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.},
doi = {10.2172/1357983},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Technical Report:

Save / Share:
  • Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulationmore » improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.« less
  • The purpose of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Praxair Surface Technologies, Inc. (PST) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was to develop an additive manufacturing process to fabricate next generation high temperature masking fixtures for coating of turbine airfoils with ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) by the Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) process. Typical masking fixtures are sophisticated designs and require complex part manipulation in order to achieve the desired coating distribution. Fixtures are typically fabricated from high temperature nickel (Ni) based superalloys. The fixtures are fabricated from conventional processes by welding of thin sheetmore » material into a complex geometry, to decrease the weight load for the manipulator and to reduce the thermal mass of the fixture. Recent attempts have been made in order to fabricate the fixtures through casting, but thin walled sections are difficult to cast and have high scrap rates. This project focused on understanding the potential for fabricating high temperature Ni based superalloy fixtures through additive manufacturing. Two different deposition processes; electron beam melting (EBM) and laser powder bed fusion were evaluated to determine the ideal processing route of these materials. Two different high temperature materials were evaluated. The high temperature materials evaluated were Inconel 718 and another Ni base alloy, designated throughout the remainder of this document as Alloy X, as the alloy composition is sensitive. Inconel 718 is a more widely utilized material for additive manufacturing although it is not currently the material utilized for current fixtures. Alloy X is the alloy currently used for the fixtures, but is not a commercially available alloy for additive manufacturing. Praxair determined it was possible to build the fixture using laser powder bed technology from Inconel 718. ORNL fabricated the fixture geometry using the EBM technology in order to compare deposition features such as surface roughness, geometric accuracy, deposition rate, surface and subsurface porosity, and material quality. It was determined that the laser powder bed technology was ideal for the geometry and requirements of the fixture set by Praxair, and Praxair moved forward with the purchase of a laser powder bed system. The subsequent portion of the project focused on determining the ideal processing parameters for alloy X for the laser powder bed system using ORNL’s Renishaw laser powder bed system. Praxair supplied gas atomized powders of alloy X material with properties specified by ORNL. ORNL printed text cube arrays in order to determine the ideal combination of laser powder and laser travel speed in order to maximize material density, improve surface quality, and maintain geometric accuracy. Additional powder supplied by Praxair was used to fabricate a full-scale fixture component.« less
  • The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayedmore » significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.« less
  • ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus ® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.
  • ORNL collaborated with Arkema Inc. to investigate poly(etherketoneketone) (PEKK) and its composites as potential feedstock material for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system. In this work thermal and rheological properties were investigated and characterized in order to identify suitable processing conditions and material flow behavior for BAAM process.