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Title: A stochastic flow-capturing model to optimize the location of fast-charging stations with uncertain electric vehicle flows

Abstract

Here, we develop a model to optimize the location of public fast charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs). A difficulty in planning the placement of charging stations is uncertainty in where EV charging demands appear. For this reason, we use a stochastic flow-capturing location model (SFCLM). A sample-average approximation method and an averaged two-replication procedure are used to solve the problem and estimate the solution quality. We demonstrate the use of the SFCLM using a Central-Ohio based case study. We find that most of the stations built are concentrated around the urban core of the region. As the number of stations built increases, some appear on the outskirts of the region to provide an extended charging network. We find that the sets of optimal charging station locations as a function of the number of stations built are approximately nested. We demonstrate the benefits of the charging-station network in terms of how many EVs are able to complete their daily trips by charging midday—six public charging stations allow at least 60% of EVs that would otherwise not be able to complete their daily tours without the stations to do so. We finally compare the SFCLM to a deterministic model, in whichmore » EV flows are set equal to their expected values. We show that if a limited number of charging stations are to be built, the SFCLM outperforms the deterministic model. As the number of stations to be built increases, the SFCLM and deterministic model select very similar station locations.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); USDOE Office of International Affairs (IA)
OSTI Identifier:
1357929
Grant/Contract Number:
PI0000012
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Transportation Research. Part D, Transport and Environment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 53; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1361-9209
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; electric vehicles; infrastructure location; stochastic; optimization

Citation Formats

Wu, Fei, and Sioshansi, Ramteen. A stochastic flow-capturing model to optimize the location of fast-charging stations with uncertain electric vehicle flows. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2017.04.035.
Wu, Fei, & Sioshansi, Ramteen. A stochastic flow-capturing model to optimize the location of fast-charging stations with uncertain electric vehicle flows. United States. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2017.04.035.
Wu, Fei, and Sioshansi, Ramteen. 2017. "A stochastic flow-capturing model to optimize the location of fast-charging stations with uncertain electric vehicle flows". United States. doi:10.1016/j.trd.2017.04.035.
@article{osti_1357929,
title = {A stochastic flow-capturing model to optimize the location of fast-charging stations with uncertain electric vehicle flows},
author = {Wu, Fei and Sioshansi, Ramteen},
abstractNote = {Here, we develop a model to optimize the location of public fast charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs). A difficulty in planning the placement of charging stations is uncertainty in where EV charging demands appear. For this reason, we use a stochastic flow-capturing location model (SFCLM). A sample-average approximation method and an averaged two-replication procedure are used to solve the problem and estimate the solution quality. We demonstrate the use of the SFCLM using a Central-Ohio based case study. We find that most of the stations built are concentrated around the urban core of the region. As the number of stations built increases, some appear on the outskirts of the region to provide an extended charging network. We find that the sets of optimal charging station locations as a function of the number of stations built are approximately nested. We demonstrate the benefits of the charging-station network in terms of how many EVs are able to complete their daily trips by charging midday—six public charging stations allow at least 60% of EVs that would otherwise not be able to complete their daily tours without the stations to do so. We finally compare the SFCLM to a deterministic model, in which EV flows are set equal to their expected values. We show that if a limited number of charging stations are to be built, the SFCLM outperforms the deterministic model. As the number of stations to be built increases, the SFCLM and deterministic model select very similar station locations.},
doi = {10.1016/j.trd.2017.04.035},
journal = {Transportation Research. Part D, Transport and Environment},
number = C,
volume = 53,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 5
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on May 4, 2018
Publisher's Version of Record

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Cited by: 2works
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  • Cited by 2
  • Electric vehicles (EVs) hold promise to improve the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of transportation. However, widespread EV use can impose significant stress on electricity-distribution systems due to their added charging loads. This paper proposes a centralized EV charging-control model, which schedules the charging of EVs that have flexibility. This flexibility stems from EVs that are parked at the charging station for a longer duration of time than is needed to fully recharge the battery. The model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic optimization problem. The model captures the use of distributed energy resources and uncertainties around EV arrival timesmore » and charging demands upon arrival, non-EV loads on the distribution system, energy prices, and availability of energy from the distributed energy resources. We use a Monte Carlo-based sample-average approximation technique and an L-shaped method to solve the resulting optimization problem efficiently. We also apply a sequential sampling technique to dynamically determine the optimal size of the randomly sampled scenario tree to give a solution with a desired quality at minimal computational cost. Here, we demonstrate the use of our model on a Central-Ohio-based case study. We show the benefits of the model in reducing charging costs, negative impacts on the distribution system, and unserved EV-charging demand compared to simpler heuristics. Lastly, we also conduct sensitivity analyses, to show how the model performs and the resulting costs and load profiles when the design of the station or EV-usage parameters are changed.« less
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  • Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are widely regarded as an important component of the technology portfolio designed to accomplish policy goals in sustainability and energy security. However, the market acceptance of PEVs in the future remains largely uncertain from today's perspective. By integrating a consumer choice model based on nested multinomial logit and Monte Carlo simulation, this study analyzes the uncertainty of PEV market penetration using Monte Carlo simulation. Results suggest that the future market for PEVs is highly uncertain and there is a substantial risk of low penetration in the early and midterm market. Top factors contributing to market sharemore » variability are price sensitivities, energy cost, range limitation, and charging availability. The results also illustrate the potential effect of public policies in promoting PEVs through investment in battery technology and infrastructure deployment. Here, continued improvement of battery technologies and deployment of charging infrastructure alone do not necessarily reduce the spread of market share distributions, but may shift distributions toward right, i.e., increase the probability of having great market success.« less