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Title: Efficient nonlinear metasurface based on nonplanar plasmonic nanocavities

Abstract

Since their discovery in the 1960s, nonlinear optical effects have revolutionized optical technologies and laser industry. Development of efficient nanoscale nonlinear sources will pave the way for new applications in photonic circuitry, quantum optics and biosensing. However, nonlinear signal generation at dimensions smaller than the wavelength of light brings new challenges. The fundamental difficulty of designing an efficient nonlinear source is that some of the contributing factors involved in nonlinear wave-mixing at the nanoscale are often hard to satisfy simultaneously. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a new type of nonplanar plasmonic metasurfaces, which can greatly enhance the second harmonic generation (SHG) at visible frequencies and achieve conversion efficiency of ~6 × 10 -5 at a peak pump intensity of ~0.5 GW/cm 2. This is 4-5 orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies observed for nonlinear thin films and doubly resonant plasmonic antennas. The proposed metasurface consists of an array of metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) nanocavities formed by conformally cross-linked nanowires separated by an ultrathin nonlinear material layer. The nonplanar MDM geometry minimizes the destructive interference of nonlinear emission into the far-field, provides strongly enhanced independently tunable resonances both for fundamental and harmonic frequencies, a good mutual overlap of the modesmore » and a strong interaction with the nonlinear spacer. Lastly, our findings enable the development of efficient nanoscale single photon sources, integrated frequency converters, and other nonlinear devices.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); Materials Sciences and Engineering Division; Emory University; Energy Frontier Research Center; Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER)
OSTI Identifier:
1357783
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Photonics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2330-4022
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; metamaterials; nonlinear optics; plasmonics

Citation Formats

Wang, Feng, Martinson, Alex B. F., and Harutyunyan, Hayk. Efficient nonlinear metasurface based on nonplanar plasmonic nanocavities. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00094.
Wang, Feng, Martinson, Alex B. F., & Harutyunyan, Hayk. Efficient nonlinear metasurface based on nonplanar plasmonic nanocavities. United States. doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00094.
Wang, Feng, Martinson, Alex B. F., and Harutyunyan, Hayk. Mon . "Efficient nonlinear metasurface based on nonplanar plasmonic nanocavities". United States. doi:10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00094. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357783.
@article{osti_1357783,
title = {Efficient nonlinear metasurface based on nonplanar plasmonic nanocavities},
author = {Wang, Feng and Martinson, Alex B. F. and Harutyunyan, Hayk},
abstractNote = {Since their discovery in the 1960s, nonlinear optical effects have revolutionized optical technologies and laser industry. Development of efficient nanoscale nonlinear sources will pave the way for new applications in photonic circuitry, quantum optics and biosensing. However, nonlinear signal generation at dimensions smaller than the wavelength of light brings new challenges. The fundamental difficulty of designing an efficient nonlinear source is that some of the contributing factors involved in nonlinear wave-mixing at the nanoscale are often hard to satisfy simultaneously. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a new type of nonplanar plasmonic metasurfaces, which can greatly enhance the second harmonic generation (SHG) at visible frequencies and achieve conversion efficiency of ~6 × 10-5 at a peak pump intensity of ~0.5 GW/cm2. This is 4-5 orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies observed for nonlinear thin films and doubly resonant plasmonic antennas. The proposed metasurface consists of an array of metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) nanocavities formed by conformally cross-linked nanowires separated by an ultrathin nonlinear material layer. The nonplanar MDM geometry minimizes the destructive interference of nonlinear emission into the far-field, provides strongly enhanced independently tunable resonances both for fundamental and harmonic frequencies, a good mutual overlap of the modes and a strong interaction with the nonlinear spacer. Lastly, our findings enable the development of efficient nanoscale single photon sources, integrated frequency converters, and other nonlinear devices.},
doi = {10.1021/acsphotonics.7b00094},
journal = {ACS Photonics},
number = 5,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 03 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Apr 03 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • Coherent superposition of light from subwavelength sources is an attractive prospect for the manipulation of the direction, shape and polarization of optical beams. This phenomenon constitutes the basis of phased arrays, commonly used at microwave and radio frequencies. Here we propose a new concept for phased-array sources at infrared frequencies based on metamaterial nanocavities coupled to a highly nonlinear semiconductor heterostructure. Optical pumping of the nanocavity induces a localized, phase-locked, nonlinear resonant polarization that acts as a source feed for a higher-order resonance of the nanocavity. Varying the nanocavity design enables the production of beams with arbitrary shape and polarization.more » As an example, we demonstrate two second harmonic phased-array sources that perform two optical functions at the second harmonic wavelength (~5 μm): a beam splitter and a polarizing beam splitter. As a result, proper design of the nanocavity and nonlinear heterostructure will enable such phased arrays to span most of the infrared spectrum.« less
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