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Title: Transformation of Active Sites in Fe/SSZ-13 SCR Catalysts during Hydrothermal Aging: A Spectroscopic, Microscopic, and Kinetics Study

Abstract

Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts (Si/Al = 12, Fe loadings 0.37% and 1.20%) were prepared via solution ion-exchange, and hydrothermally aged at 600, 700 and 800 C. The fresh and aged catalysts were characterized with surface area/pore volume analysis, Mössbauer, solid-state MAS NMR, NO titration FTIR spectroscopies, and TEM and APT imaging. Hydrothermal aging causes dealumination of the catalysts, and transformation of various Fe sites. The latter include conversion of free Fe2+ ions to dimeric Fe(III) species, the agglomeration of isolated Fe-ions to Fe-oxide clusters, and incorporation of Al into the Fe-oxide species. These changes result in complex influences on standard SCR and NO/NH3 oxidation reactions. In brief, mild aging causes catalyst performance enhancement for SCR, while harsh aging at 800 C deteriorates SCR performance. In comparison to Fe/zeolites more prone to hydrothermal degradation, this study demonstrates that via the utilization of highly hydrothermally stable Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts, more accurate correlations between various Fe species and their roles in SCR related chemistries can be made. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL),more » a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.« less

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (US), Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1357716
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-123026
Journal ID: ISSN 2155-5435; 47953; VT0401000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: ACS Catalysis; Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
selective catalyst reduction; Fe/SSZ-13; hydrothermal aging; FTIR; TEM; NMR; Mossbauer; Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

Citation Formats

Kovarik, Libor, Washton, Nancy M., Kukkadapu, Ravi, Devaraj, Arun, Wang, Aiyong, Wang, Yilin, Szanyi, Janos, Peden, Charles H. F., and Gao, Feng. Transformation of Active Sites in Fe/SSZ-13 SCR Catalysts during Hydrothermal Aging: A Spectroscopic, Microscopic, and Kinetics Study. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acscatal.6b03679.
Kovarik, Libor, Washton, Nancy M., Kukkadapu, Ravi, Devaraj, Arun, Wang, Aiyong, Wang, Yilin, Szanyi, Janos, Peden, Charles H. F., & Gao, Feng. Transformation of Active Sites in Fe/SSZ-13 SCR Catalysts during Hydrothermal Aging: A Spectroscopic, Microscopic, and Kinetics Study. United States. doi:10.1021/acscatal.6b03679.
Kovarik, Libor, Washton, Nancy M., Kukkadapu, Ravi, Devaraj, Arun, Wang, Aiyong, Wang, Yilin, Szanyi, Janos, Peden, Charles H. F., and Gao, Feng. Tue . "Transformation of Active Sites in Fe/SSZ-13 SCR Catalysts during Hydrothermal Aging: A Spectroscopic, Microscopic, and Kinetics Study". United States. doi:10.1021/acscatal.6b03679.
@article{osti_1357716,
title = {Transformation of Active Sites in Fe/SSZ-13 SCR Catalysts during Hydrothermal Aging: A Spectroscopic, Microscopic, and Kinetics Study},
author = {Kovarik, Libor and Washton, Nancy M. and Kukkadapu, Ravi and Devaraj, Arun and Wang, Aiyong and Wang, Yilin and Szanyi, Janos and Peden, Charles H. F. and Gao, Feng},
abstractNote = {Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts (Si/Al = 12, Fe loadings 0.37% and 1.20%) were prepared via solution ion-exchange, and hydrothermally aged at 600, 700 and 800 C. The fresh and aged catalysts were characterized with surface area/pore volume analysis, Mössbauer, solid-state MAS NMR, NO titration FTIR spectroscopies, and TEM and APT imaging. Hydrothermal aging causes dealumination of the catalysts, and transformation of various Fe sites. The latter include conversion of free Fe2+ ions to dimeric Fe(III) species, the agglomeration of isolated Fe-ions to Fe-oxide clusters, and incorporation of Al into the Fe-oxide species. These changes result in complex influences on standard SCR and NO/NH3 oxidation reactions. In brief, mild aging causes catalyst performance enhancement for SCR, while harsh aging at 800 C deteriorates SCR performance. In comparison to Fe/zeolites more prone to hydrothermal degradation, this study demonstrates that via the utilization of highly hydrothermally stable Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts, more accurate correlations between various Fe species and their roles in SCR related chemistries can be made. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.},
doi = {10.1021/acscatal.6b03679},
journal = {ACS Catalysis},
number = 4,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Mar 07 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Mar 07 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Cu/SSZ-13 has been successfully commercialized as a diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment SCR catalyst in the past few years. This catalyst, however, displays undesirable NH3-SCR selectivity at elevated reaction temperature (≥ 350 C) after hydrothermal aging. Fe/zeolites, despite the fact that most of them degrade beyond tolerance after hydrothermal aging at temperatures ≥ 650 C, typically maintain good SCR selectivities. In recent years, Fe/beta has been identified as one of the more robust Fe/zeolites for use in NH3-SCR, where activity maintains even after hydrothermal aging at 750 C. Very recently, we, for the first time, synthesized and tested NH3-SCR performance formore » fresh and hydrothermally aged Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts. This study demonstrated that Fe/SSZ-13 is also a promising robust SCR catalyst, especially for high-temperature applications. In the present study, we compare catalytic performance between Fe/SSZ-13 and Fe/beta with similar Fe loadings and Si/Al ratios. Special attention is paid to effects from hydrothermal aging, aiming to understanding similarities and differences between these two catalysts. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.« less
  • Cu, Fe and Cu + Fe ion exchanged Beta and SSZ-13 catalysts were prepared by solution ion exchange using commercial NH 4/Beta, and NH 4/SSZ-13 that was prepared in-house. To study hydrothermal aging effects, Beta supported catalysts were aged hydrothermally at 700 °C and SSZ-13 supported catalysts were aged at 750 °C. In order to reveal the effects of Fe addition in the co-exchanged catalysts, these catalysts were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), 27Al-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 27Al-NMR) and propylene coking followed with temperature programmed reaction (TPR), and further testedmore » with standard NH 3-SCR with and without the presence of propylene. Collectively, the catalyst characterizations and reaction testing indicated minor beneficial effects of Fe addition in Cu,Fe/Beta, where NH 3-SCR activity, N 2 selectivity and hydrothermal stability were all slightly improved. In contrast, Fe addition did not show apparent beneficial effects in low-temperature SCR for the Cu,Fe/SSZ-13 case. In conclusion, at elevated reaction temperatures, however, the presence of Fe indeed considerably improved NO conversion and N 2 selectivity for the hydrothermally aged Cu,Fe/SSZ-13 catalyst in the presence of propylene.« less
  • Cu- and Fe/SSZ-13 catalysts with the same Cu(Fe)/Al ratios are synthesized using the same parent SSZ-13 starting material. The catalytic performance for both fresh and hydrothermally aged catalysts is tested with NO and NH3 oxidation, and standard SCR reactions under steady-state conditions, and standard and fast SCR under temperature-programmed conditions. For standard SCR, Cu/SSZ-13 shows much better low-temperature performance which can be explained by NH3-inhibition of Fe/SSZ-13. During hydrothermal aging, both catalysts undergo dealumination but Fe/SSZ-13 dealuminates more severely. For aged catalysts, Cu/SSZ-13 gains oxidation activities due to formation of CuOx. However, Fe/SSZ-13 loses oxidation activities although formation of FeOxmore » clusters and FeAlOx species also occur. Because of such physical properties differences, aged Cu/SSZ-13 loses while Fe/SSZ-13 maintains high-temperature SCR selectivities. A physical mixture of aged catalysts provides stable SCR performance in a wide temperature range and is able to decrease N2O formation at high reaction temperatures. This suggests that Fe/SSZ-13 can be used as a cocatalyst for Cu/SSZ-13 for transportation applications. During temperature-programmed SCR reactions, weak hysteresis is found during standard SCR due to NH3 inhibition. For fast SCR, hysteresis caused by NH4NO3 inhibition is much more significant. NH4NO3 deposition is greatly enhanced by Brønsted and Lewis acidity of the catalysts.« less
  • Cited by 17
  • Using a traditional aqueous solution ion-exchange method under a protecting atmosphere of N2, an Fe/SSZ-13 catalyst active in NH3-SCR was synthesized. Mössbauer and FTIR spectroscopies were used to probe the nature of the Fe sites. In the fresh sample, the majority of Fe species are extra-framework cations. The likely monomeric and dimeric ferric ions in hydrated form are [Fe(OH)2]+ and [HO-Fe-O-Fe-OH]2+, based on Mössbauer measurements. During the severe hydrothermal aging (HTA) applied in this study, a majority of cationic Fe species convert to FeAlOx and clustered FeOx species, accompanied by severe dealumination of the SSZ-13 framework. The clustered FeOx speciesmore » do not give a sextet Mössbauer spectrum, indicating that these are highly disordered. However, some Fe species in cationic positions remain after aging as determined from Mössbauer measurements and CO/NO FTIR titrations. NO/NH3 oxidation reaction tests reveal that dehydrated cationic Fe are substantially more active in catalyzing oxidation reactions than the hydrated ones. For NH3-SCR, enhancement of NO oxidation under ‘dry’ conditions promotes SCR rates below ~300 • C. This is due mainly to contribution from the “fast” SCR channel. Above ~300 • C, enhancement of NH3 oxidation under ‘dry’ conditions, however, becomes detrimental to NOx conversions. The HTA sample loses much of the SCR activity below ~300 • C; however, above ~400 • C much of the activity remains. This may suggest that the FeAlOx and FeOx species become active at such elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the high-temperature activity may be maintained by the remaining extra-framework cationic species. For potential practical applications, Fe/SSZ-13 may be used as a co-catalyst for Cu/CHA as integral aftertreatment SCR catalysts on the basis of the stable high temperature activity after hydrothermal aging. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle.« less