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Title: Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures

Abstract

Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designed for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. As a result, the ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and roboticmore » devices.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1357360
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-680227
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; actuators; chemical engineering

Citation Formats

Rodriguez, Jennifer N., Zhu, Cheng, Duoss, Eric B., Wilson, Thomas S., Spadaccini, Christopher M., and Lewicki, James P. Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/srep27933.
Rodriguez, Jennifer N., Zhu, Cheng, Duoss, Eric B., Wilson, Thomas S., Spadaccini, Christopher M., & Lewicki, James P. Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures. United States. doi:10.1038/srep27933.
Rodriguez, Jennifer N., Zhu, Cheng, Duoss, Eric B., Wilson, Thomas S., Spadaccini, Christopher M., and Lewicki, James P. 2016. "Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures". United States. doi:10.1038/srep27933. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357360.
@article{osti_1357360,
title = {Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures},
author = {Rodriguez, Jennifer N. and Zhu, Cheng and Duoss, Eric B. and Wilson, Thomas S. and Spadaccini, Christopher M. and Lewicki, James P.},
abstractNote = {Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designed for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. As a result, the ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and robotic devices.},
doi = {10.1038/srep27933},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 6,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}

Journal Article:
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  • We demonstrate facile optical manipulation of shape of birefringent colloidal microparticles made from liquid crystal elastomers. Using soft lithography and polymerization, we fabricate elastomeric microcylinders with weakly undulating director oriented on average along their long axes. These particles are infiltrated with gold nanospheres acting as heat transducers that allow for an efficient localized transfer of heat from a focused infrared laser beam to a submicrometer region within a microparticle. Photothermal control of ordering in the liquid crystal elastomer using scanned beams allows for a robust control of colloidal particles, enabling both reversible and irreversible changes of shape. Possible applications includemore » optomechanics, microfluidics, and reconfigurable colloidal composites with shape-dependent self-assembly.« less
  • Purpose: To compare projection-based versus global correction that compensate for deadtime count loss in SPECT/CT images. Methods: SPECT/CT images of an IEC phantom (2.3GBq 99mTc) with ∼10% deadtime loss containing the 37mm (uptake 3), 28 and 22mm (uptake 6) spheres were acquired using a 2 detector SPECT/CT system with 64 projections/detector and 15 s/projection. The deadtime, Ti and the true count rate, Ni at each projection, i was calculated using the monitor-source method. Deadtime corrected SPECT were reconstructed twice: (1) with projections that were individually-corrected for deadtime-losses; and (2) with original projections with losses and then correcting the reconstructed SPECTmore » images using a scaling factor equal to the inverse of the average fractional loss for 5 projections/detector. For both cases, the SPECT images were reconstructed using OSEM with attenuation and scatter corrections. The two SPECT datasets were assessed by comparing line profiles in xyplane and z-axis, evaluating the count recoveries, and comparing ROI statistics. Higher deadtime losses (up to 50%) were also simulated to the individually corrected projections by multiplying each projection i by exp(-a*Ni*Ti), where a is a scalar. Additionally, deadtime corrections in phantoms with different geometries and deadtime losses were also explored. The same two correction methods were carried for all these data sets. Results: Averaging the deadtime losses in 5 projections/detector suffices to recover >99% of the loss counts in most clinical cases. The line profiles (xyplane and z-axis) and the statistics in the ROIs drawn in the SPECT images corrected using both methods showed agreement within the statistical noise. The count-loss recoveries in the two methods also agree within >99%. Conclusion: The projection-based and the global correction yield visually indistinguishable SPECT images. The global correction based on sparse sampling of projections losses allows for accurate SPECT deadtime loss correction while keeping the study duration reasonable.« less