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Title: A methodology for accident analysis of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled lead–lithium blanket

Abstract

'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of these TBSs into ITER and accident analysis is one of its critical components. A systematic approach to accident analysis has been developed under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements, together with Amec Foster Wheeler and INL efforts, have resulted in a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena while remaining consistent with the approach already applied to ITER accident analyses. Furthermore, the methodology phases are illustrated in the paper by its application to the EU HCLL TBS using both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain)
  2. Amec Foster Wheeler, Knutsford (United Kingdom)
  3. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1357251
Report Number(s):
INL/JOU-15-36078
Journal ID: ISSN 0093-3813; TRN: US1702160
Grant/Contract Number:
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0093-3813
Publisher:
IEEE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; accident analyses; fusion breeder blankets (BBs); fusion safety; tritium breeder module (TBM); DEMO; ITER; test blanket system (TBS)

Citation Formats

Panayotov, Dobromir, Poitevin, Yves, Grief, Andrew, Trow, Martin, Dillistone, Michael, Murgatroyd, Julian T., Owen, Simon, Peers, Karen, Lyons, Alex, Heaton, Adam, Scott, Richard, Merrill, Brad J., and Humrickhouse, Paul. A methodology for accident analysis of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled lead–lithium blanket. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1109/TPS.2016.2607784.
Panayotov, Dobromir, Poitevin, Yves, Grief, Andrew, Trow, Martin, Dillistone, Michael, Murgatroyd, Julian T., Owen, Simon, Peers, Karen, Lyons, Alex, Heaton, Adam, Scott, Richard, Merrill, Brad J., & Humrickhouse, Paul. A methodology for accident analysis of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled lead–lithium blanket. United States. doi:10.1109/TPS.2016.2607784.
Panayotov, Dobromir, Poitevin, Yves, Grief, Andrew, Trow, Martin, Dillistone, Michael, Murgatroyd, Julian T., Owen, Simon, Peers, Karen, Lyons, Alex, Heaton, Adam, Scott, Richard, Merrill, Brad J., and Humrickhouse, Paul. 2016. "A methodology for accident analysis of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled lead–lithium blanket". United States. doi:10.1109/TPS.2016.2607784. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357251.
@article{osti_1357251,
title = {A methodology for accident analysis of fusion breeder blankets and its application to helium-cooled lead–lithium blanket},
author = {Panayotov, Dobromir and Poitevin, Yves and Grief, Andrew and Trow, Martin and Dillistone, Michael and Murgatroyd, Julian T. and Owen, Simon and Peers, Karen and Lyons, Alex and Heaton, Adam and Scott, Richard and Merrill, Brad J. and Humrickhouse, Paul},
abstractNote = {'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of these TBSs into ITER and accident analysis is one of its critical components. A systematic approach to accident analysis has been developed under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements, together with Amec Foster Wheeler and INL efforts, have resulted in a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analysis that addresses the specificity of the breeding blanket designs, materials, and phenomena while remaining consistent with the approach already applied to ITER accident analyses. Furthermore, the methodology phases are illustrated in the paper by its application to the EU HCLL TBS using both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes.},
doi = {10.1109/TPS.2016.2607784},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science},
number = 10,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • The objective of this study is to provide a comparison of thermal-hydraulic and structural performance of lithium, helium, and flibe cooled fusion blankets based on a tube/header geometry in a liquid lithium breeder. Type 316 stainless steel and TZM are considered as representative near-term and long-term, high temperature blanket structural materials, respectively, to show the potentials of each coolant. The flibe-TZM system has the best characteristics, while lithium-316SS, helium-316SS, and helium-TZM are comparable but definitely more limited in operating conditions. These results suggest that molten salt-refractory metal systems deserve more attention.
  • A preliminary design for a helium-cooled solid breeder blanket for a tokamak fusion reactor has been developed, and its performance looks quite good. The design is capable of bearing a 4 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall load, and the ideal pumping power required for the whole primary helium loop including the steam generators is only 2.5% of the total thermal power. The maximum blanket thickness including the helium duct work is only 860 mm, the minimum thickness is only 730 mm. The design work was focused on the thermalhydraulic aspects, which represent the key problems associated with using helium as amore » coolant. The present work demonstrates that the potential disadvantages helium has, due to its limited heat transfer capabilities, can be avoided or minimized by an appropriate thermal-hydraulic design. As a result, helium with its many advantages remains a promising fusion blanket coolant.« less
  • A preliminary design for a helium-cooled solid breeder blanket for a tokamak fusion reactor has been developed, and its performance looks quite good. The design is capable of bearing a 4 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall load, and the ideal pumping power required for the whole primary helium loop including the steam generators is only 2.5% of the total thermal power. The maximum blanket thickness including the helium duct work is only 860 mm, the minimum thickness is only 730 mm. The design work was focused on the thermalhydraulic aspects, which represent the key problems associated with using helium as amore » coolant. The present work demonstrates that the potential disadvantages helium has, due to its limited heat transfer capabilities, can be avoided or minimized by an appropriate thermal-hydraulic design. As a result, helium with its many advantages remains a promising fusion blanket coolant.« less
  • The differential operator perturbation technique implemented in the three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4C has been applied to the EU water-cooled lithium lead test blanket module integrated in ITER-FEAT in order to assess changes in some parameters such as tritium production rate and radiation damage through He and H production in steel structure because of changes in nuclear cross-section data. The transport and sensitivity calculations have been carried out utilizing the FENDL2 point-wise cross-section data. The relatively small sensitivity of tritium production rate to the cross sections considered has been observed. Sensitivity profiles of radiation damage responses (He, Hmore » production) in iron and chromium isotopes to their own cross sections (direct contribution) show that the sensitivity is concentrated in the high (13.5-14.5 MeV) energy region where large (>1) sensitivity is found.« less
  • Two examples of alternate concepts for fusion reactors are the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor and the Advanced Tokamak Reactor based on the Spherical Torus. Both are compact reactors that have high-power-density cooling requirements for key fusion-power-core components. Both reactors have blankets cooled by Pb/sub 83/Li/sub 17/ eutectic and other components that are cooled by water. Thus, a dual-media steam power cycle must be used. Thermal/hydraulic analyses were developed for the design of the fusion-power-core components. A procedure was developed to optimize the design with respect to net cycle efficiency, subject to design constraints related to critical heat flux, peak temperatures,more » corrosion, and thermal stress. Details of the calculation procedures and results for the blanket designs for both conceptual reactors are given.« less