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Title: Personnel safety with pressurized gas systems

Abstract

In this study, selected accident case histories are described that illustrate the potential modes of injury from gas jets, pressure-driven missiles, and asphyxiants. Gas combustion hazards are also briefly mentioned. Using high-pressure helium and nitrogen, estimates of safe exclusion distances are calculated for differing pressures, temperatures, and breach sizes. Some sources for gas system reliability values are also cited.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Idaho National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1357193
Report Number(s):
INL/JOU-14-32059
Journal ID: ISSN 1066-8527
Grant/Contract Number:
AC07-05ID14517
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Process Safety Progress
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 35; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1066-8527
Publisher:
Wiley - American Institute of Chemical Engineers
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; compressed gas safety; personnel safety; pressurized gas; hazardous evaluation; industrial hygiene/occupational health

Citation Formats

Cadwallader, Lee C., and Zhao, Haihua. Personnel safety with pressurized gas systems. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1002/prs.11850.
Cadwallader, Lee C., & Zhao, Haihua. Personnel safety with pressurized gas systems. United States. doi:10.1002/prs.11850.
Cadwallader, Lee C., and Zhao, Haihua. 2016. "Personnel safety with pressurized gas systems". United States. doi:10.1002/prs.11850. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357193.
@article{osti_1357193,
title = {Personnel safety with pressurized gas systems},
author = {Cadwallader, Lee C. and Zhao, Haihua},
abstractNote = {In this study, selected accident case histories are described that illustrate the potential modes of injury from gas jets, pressure-driven missiles, and asphyxiants. Gas combustion hazards are also briefly mentioned. Using high-pressure helium and nitrogen, estimates of safe exclusion distances are calculated for differing pressures, temperatures, and breach sizes. Some sources for gas system reliability values are also cited.},
doi = {10.1002/prs.11850},
journal = {Process Safety Progress},
number = 4,
volume = 35,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

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  • Storage and handling of compressed gases at nuclear power plants were studied to identify any potential safety hazards. Gases investigated were air, acetylene, carbon dioxide, chlorine, Halon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, propane, and sulfur hexafluoride. Physical properties of gases were reviewed, as were applicable industrial codes and standards. Incidents involving pressurized gases in general industry and in the nuclear industry were studied. In this report general hazards, such as missiles from ruptures, rocketing of cylinders, fires, explosions, asphyxiation, and toxicity, are discussed. Even though some serious injuries and deaths have occurred over the years in industries handling and using pressurized gases,more » the industrial codes, standards, practices, and procedures are very comprehensive. The most important step one can take to ensure the safe handling of gases is to enforce these well-known and established methods.« less
  • Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamicsmore » model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.« less