skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: RF Models for Plasma-Surface Interactions

  1. Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) (SC-24)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Type / Phase:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; plasma-surface interactions; radio-frequency; particle-in-cell; finite-difference-time-domain modeling; plasma ICRF heating; sputtering, plasma chemistry; drift-diffusion approximation

Citation Formats

Jenkins, Thomas G. RF Models for Plasma-Surface Interactions. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Jenkins, Thomas G. RF Models for Plasma-Surface Interactions. United States.
Jenkins, Thomas G. 2017. "RF Models for Plasma-Surface Interactions". United States. doi:.
title = {RF Models for Plasma-Surface Interactions},
author = {Jenkins, Thomas G.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 5

Technical Report:
This technical report may be protected. To request the document, click here.
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that may hold this item. Keep in mind that many technical reports are not cataloged in WorldCat.

Save / Share:
  • This report describes the achievements of the first year of effort on data acquired by the University of Iowa/AFGL Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE) (AFGL 701-15 Plasma Sounder and AFGL 701-13-2 Search Coil Magnetometer) which was a part of the SPACERAD complement of instruments on the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). The primary purpose of the PWE is to study plasma waves, wave-particle interactions, and plasma number densities in the radiation belts of the Earth's magnetosphere as observed by the CRRES SPACERAD instruments in order to provide essential parameters for understanding both the long-scale and short-scale temporal and spatialmore » variations of the individual particle species and waves and their inter-relationships. Computer programs to display and analyze the CRRES PWE data from both the real-time data collected at CSTC (the U.S. Air Force's Consolidated Space Test Center at Onizuka AFB in Sunnyvale, CA) and the Agency Tapes have been developed and utilized to study the PWE data and to extract the electron number density throughout the CRRES orbit. Many significant new discoveries have been made including detailed observation of the fine structure in density variations and their association with enhanced low frequency electric field emissions, observations of deep cavities and ducts within the plasmasphere, and detection of multiple bands of emissions associated with multiple populations of energetic electrons.« less
  • The choice of material for the plasma facing components (PFC), in particular, for divertor targets, is one of the main issues for future tokamak reactors. There are two major requirements for the PFC’s material: acceptable level of tritium retention and durability in a harsh environment of fusion grade plasma. Based on these criteria, some years ago it was decided that tungsten is an acceptable material for divertor targets in ITER. However, further experimental studies reveal that the irradiation of tungsten even with low energetic (well below sputtering threshold!) He containing plasma causes significant modification of surface morphology, formation of themore » layer of He nano-bubbles (in the temperature range T<1000 K), “fuzz” (for 1000 K2000 K) (e.g. see Fig. 1). Recall that He, being an ash of D-T fusion reactions, is an inherent impurity in fusion plasma. The goals of the UCSD Applied Plasma Theory Group was: i) investigate the mechanisms of the formation of He nano-bubble layer and fuzz growth under He irradiation, as well as the physics of transport of hydrogen species in tungsten lattice, and ii) develop physics understanding of the models suitable for the incorporation into the Xolotl-PSI code based on the reaction-diffusion approach, which is the flagship of the whole SciDAC project [8], which can guide both numerical simulations and experimental studies. Here we just highlight our major accomplishments.« less
  • This final report describes the results of a research program we carried out over a five-year (3/1999-9/2004) period with funding from a Department of Energy geothermal FDP grant (DE-FG07-99ID13745) and from other agencies. The goal of research projects in this program were to develop modeling technologies that can increase the understanding of geothermal reservoir chemistry and chemistry-related energy production processes. The ability of computer models to handle many chemical variables and complex interactions makes them an essential tool for building a fundamental understanding of a wide variety of complex geothermal resource and production chemistry. With careful choice of methodology andmore » parameterization, research objectives were to show that chemical models can correctly simulate behavior for the ranges of fluid compositions, formation minerals, temperature and pressure associated with present and near future geothermal systems as well as for the very high PT chemistry of deep resources that is intractable with traditional experimental methods. Our research results successfully met these objectives. We demonstrated that advances in physical chemistry theory can be used to accurately describe the thermodynamics of solid-liquid-gas systems via their free energies for wide ranges of composition (X), temperature and pressure. Eight articles on this work were published in peer-reviewed journals and in conference proceedings. Four are in preparation. Our work has been presented at many workshops and conferences. We also considerably improved our interactive web site (, which was in preliminary form prior to the grant. This site, which includes several model codes treating different XPT conditions, is an effective means to transfer our technologies and is used by the geothermal community and other researchers worldwide. Our models have wide application to many energy related and other important problems (e.g., scaling prediction in petroleum production systems, stripping towers for mineral production processes, nuclear waste storage, CO2 sequestration strategies, global warming). Although funding decreases cut short completion of several research activities, we made significant progress on these abbreviated projects.« less
  • To create long-term solutions for offshore wind turbines in a variety of environmental conditions, CAE tools are needed to model the design-driving loads that interact with an offshore wind turbine system during operation. This report describes our efforts in augmenting existing CAE tools used for offshore wind turbine analysis with a new module that can provide simulation capabilities for ice loading on the system. This augmentation was accomplished by creating an ice-loading module coupled to FAST8, the CAE tool maintained by the NREL for simulating land-based and offshore wind turbine dynamics. The new module includes both static and dynamic icemore » loading that can be applied during a dynamic simulation of the response of an offshore wind turbine. The ice forces can be prescribed, or influenced by the structure’s compliant response, or by the dynamics of both the structure and the ice floe. The new module covers ice failure modes of spalling, buckling, crushing, splitting, and bending. The supporting structure of wind turbines can be modeled as a vertical or sloping form at the waterline. The Inward Battered Guide Structure (IBGS) foundation designed by Keystone Engineering for the Great Lakes was used to study the ice models coupled to FAST8. The IBGS foundation ice loading simulations in FAST8 were compared to the baseline simulation case without ice loading. The ice conditions reflecting those from Lake Huron at Port Huron and Lake Michigan at North Manitou were studied under near rated wind speed of 12 m/s for the NREL 5-MW reference turbine. Simulations were performed on ice loading models 1 through 4 and ice model 6 with their respective sub-models. The purpose of ice model 5 is to investigate ice loading on sloping structures such as ice-cones on a monopile and is not suitable for multi-membered jacketed structures like the IBGS foundation. The key response parameters from the simulations, shear forces and moments from the tower base and IBGS foundation base, were compared. Ice models 1 and 6 do not significantly affect the tower fore-aft shear and moment. However, ice model 2 (dynamic analyses), model 3 (random ice loading), and model 4 (multiple ice failure zone loading) show increased effect on the tower fore-aft shear and moment with significant effect from ice model 3.1. In general ice loading creates large reaction forces and moments at the base of the IBGS foundation; the largest occurred in model 1.1 (steady creep ice indentation loading) followed by model 3.1 (random creep ice indentation loading). In general the power production from the ice loading cases had little deviation from the baseline case without ice loading. For ultimate limit state (ULS), ice model 1.1 ice and 3.1 appear to be the ice most critical models to consider at an early stage of design. Ice model 4 is an important tool for assessing structural fatigue.« less
  • This paper gives a brief description of the geometry and parameters of the PLT tokamak, reviews some of the last four years' results that are particularly relevant to plasma-boundary interactions, and then concentrates on two specific problems.